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Appendix D Forum Member Biographies David A. Relman, M.D. (Chair), is professor of medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, and chief of the infectious disease section at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health Care System. Dr. Relman received his B.S. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford for a postdoctoral fellowship in 1986 and joined the faculty there in 1994. His research focus is on understanding the structure and role of the human indigenous microbial communities in health and disease. This work brings together approaches from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. A second area of investigation explores the classification structure of humans and nonhuman primates with systemic infectious diseases, based on patterns of genome-wide gene transcript abundance in blood and other tissues. The goals of this work are to understand mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction, as well as predict clini- cal outcome early in the disease process. His scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens; the characterization of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of Whipple’s disease; and some of the most in-depth analyses to date of human indigenous microbial communities. Among his other activities, Dr. Relman currently serves as chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and advises a number of U.S. government departments and agencies on matters 

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 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He was co-chair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Gen- eration Biowarfare Threats for the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He received the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2006, and a Doris Duke Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award in 2006. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D. (Vice Chair), was the founding vice president, Biological Programs, at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weap- ons, and ran the program for many years. She currently serves as senior scientist for the organization. She completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. Before taking on her current position, she was the assistant secretary for planning and evaluation, U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services (HHS), serving as a principal policy adviser to the secretary of health and human services, with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for nearly six years as the commissioner of health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, her many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases, the development of initia- tives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels, and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She cur- rently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American College of Physicians. David W. K. Acheson, M.D., F.R.C.P., is assistant commissioner for food pro- tection in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dr. Acheson graduated from the University of London Medical School in 1980 and, following training in internal medicine and infectious diseases in the United Kingdom, moved to the New England Medical Center and Tufts University in Boston in 1987. As an asso- ciate professor at Tufts University, he undertook basic molecular pathogenesis research on foodborne pathogens, especially Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia

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 APPENDIX D coli. In 2001, Dr. Acheson moved his laboratory to the University of Maryland Medical School in Baltimore to continue research on foodborne pathogens. In September 2002, Dr. Acheson accepted a position as chief medical officer at the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). In January 2004, he also became the director of CFSAN’s Food Safety and Security Staff, and in January 2005, the staff was expanded to become the Office of Food Safety, Defense and Outreach. In January 2007, the office was further expanded to become the Office of Food Defense, Communication and Emergency Response. On May 1, 2007, Dr. Acheson assumed the position of FDA assistant commis- sioner for food protection to provide advice and counsel to the commissioner on strategic and substantive food safety and food defense matters. Dr. Acheson has published extensively and is internationally recognized both for his public health expertise in food safety and for his research in infectious diseases. Additionally, Dr. Acheson is a fellow of both the Royal College of Physicians (London) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton Uni- versity and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, she began her career at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1980 and later became deputy director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). She also served as a senior adviser to the director of CDC and as assistant surgeon general in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2001 she came to her current position at Emory University, direct- ing a center focused on emerging infectious diseases and other urgent threats to health, including terrorism. She has also consulted with the biologic program of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and is most recognized for her work in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She was elected to the IOM in 2004. Cur- rently a member of the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academies, she also chairs the Board of Public and Scientific Affairs at the American Society of Microbiology (ASM). Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D., is president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. She received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genet- ics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Public Health Association. Dr. Bond chairs the Academies’ Board on African Science Academy Development and serves on the Report Review Committee for the Academies. She serves on the board and executive committee of the Research Triangle Park Foundation, the board of the National Institute for Statistical Sciences, the board of the Northeast Biodefense

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0 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION Center and the New England Center of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, and the council of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Prior to being named president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, Dr. Bond served on the staff of the IOM beginning in 1979, becom- ing its executive officer in 1989. Roger G. Breeze, Ph.D., received his veterinary degree in 1968 and his Ph.D. in veterinary pathology in 1973, both from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was engaged in teaching, diagnostic pathology, and research on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School from 1968 to 1977 and at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1977 to 1987, where he was professor and chair of the Department of Micro- biology and Pathology. From 1984 to 1987 he was deputy director of the Wash- ington Technology Center, the state’s high-technology sciences initiative, based in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. In 1987, he was appointed director of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a Biosafety Level 3 facility for research and diagnosis of the world’s most dangerous livestock diseases. In that role he initiated research into the genomic and functional genomic basis of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of livestock RNA and DNA virus infections. This work became the basis of U.S. defense against natural and deliberate infection with these agents and led to his involvement in the early 1990s in biological weapons defense and proliferation prevention. From 1995 to 1998, he directed research programs in 20 laboratories in the Southeast for the USDA Agricultural Research Service before going to Washington, DC, to establish biological weapons defense research pro- grams for USDA. He received the Distinguished Executive Award from President Clinton in 1998 for his work at Plum Island and in biodefense. Since 2004 he has been chief executive officer of Centaur Science Group, which provides consulting services in biodefense. His main commitment is to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention Program in Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Steven J. Brickner, Ph.D., is a research fellow in antibacterials chemistry at Pfizer Global Research and Development in Groton, Connecticut. He graduated from Miami University (Ohio) with a B.S. in chemistry with honors and received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in organic chemistry from Cornell University. He was an NIH postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with 25 years of research experience in the phar- maceutical industry, all focused on the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor or co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents and has published numerous sci- entific papers in the areas of oxazolidinones and novel azetidinones. Dr. Brickner has been a member of the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats since 1997 and is a member of the editorial advisory board for Current Pharmaceutical Design. Dr.

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 APPENDIX D Brickner initiated the oxazolidinone research program at Upjohn, led the team that discovered Zyvox® (linezolid), and is a co-inventor of this antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections. Zyvox is the first member of any entirely new class of antibiotics to reach the market in more than 35 years since the quinolones. He is a co-recipient of the 2007 American Chemical Society’s Team Innovation Award and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America’s 2007 Discoverers Award. He was named the 2002-2003 Outstanding Alumni Lecturer, College of Arts and Science, Miami University (Ohio). Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., is currently vice president, Scientific Affairs, and Dis- tinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Com- pany, in Indianapolis, Indiana. She is the former Charles H. McCauley Professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from NIH during her decade of leadership. She obtained her B.S. from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected as one of the top 31 female graduates of the twentieth century. She obtained her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus. She is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology (the oldest and single-largest life sciences organization, with a membership of more than 42,000). She was a member of the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee and a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of NIH. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the CDC Center for Infectious Diseases and served as chair of the board. She recently served a three- year term on the Advisory Board of the director of the CDC and as a member of the HHS secretary’s Advisory Council of Public Health Preparedness. Currently she is a member of the Science Board of the FDA Advisory Committee to the Commissioner. Since 1996 she has been a member of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program responsible for advising the respective governments on joint research agendas (U.S. State Department-Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs). She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious dis- eases. She is a member of the IOM and is currently serving a three-year term on the IOM Council, its governing board. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For nine years she was chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; she has served as an adviser on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); and she has been an invited participant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has

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 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION served two terms on the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools, as well as other national committees involved in establishing policies for training in the biomedical sciences. She has just completed a term on the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University. Currently she is a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of Visitors of Columbia University School of Medicine, the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and the Advisory Council of the School of Nursing of Johns Hopkins. Bill Colston, Ph.D., is division leader for the Chemical and Biological Coun- termeasures (CB) Division for the Global Security (GS) Principal Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The newly formed CB Division is comprised of about 190 scientists from a variety of disciplines. The mission of this division is to provide national policy support, threat characterization, biological detection, chemical and explosives detection, instrumentation and systems development, decontamination and restoration, forensics and attribu- tion, Biodefense Knowledge Center products, and incident response support operations. Prior to this assignment he held the positions of founding director of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Biodefense Knowledge Center (BKC) and deputy program leader for the Chemical and Biological Security Pro- gram. Dr. Colston holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis, in bio- medical engineering. He has published more than 40 publications in the scientific literature, holds more than 15 patents related to medical diagnostics and imaging devices, and has received three different research and development (R&D) 100 Awards. His research interests are focused mainly on molecular characterization of infectious disease, with direct relevance to new diagnostic devices. Col. Ralph (Loren) Erickson, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H., is the director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DOD-GEIS) headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. He holds a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Washington, an M.D. from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, an M.P.H. from Harvard University, and a Dr.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. Residency trained and board certified in preventive medicine, Dr. Erickson has held a number of lead- ership positions within the Army Medical Department, including director of the General Preventive Medicine Residency Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; director, Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; commander of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (Europe); and specialty leader for all U.S. Army preventive medicine physicians. Mark Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D., is vice president for medical affairs and policy in global vaccine and infectious diseases at Merck & Co., Inc., and is responsible

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 APPENDIX D for global efforts to implement vaccines to achieve the greatest health benefits, including efforts to expand access to new vaccines in the developing world. Dr. Feinberg received a bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978 and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1987. His Ph.D. research at Stanford was supervised by Dr. Irving Weissman and included time spent studying the molecular biology of the human retroviruses—HTLV-I (human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type I) and HIV—as a visiting scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Gallo at the National Cancer Institute. From 1985 to 1986, Dr. Feinberg served as a project officer for the IOM Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS. After receiving his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees, Dr. Feinberg pursued postgraduate residency training in inter- nal medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital of Harvard Medical School and postdoctoral fellowship research in the laboratory of Dr. David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Feinberg was an assistant professor of medicine and microbiology and immunol- ogy at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also served as an attending physician in the AIDS-oncology division and as director of the virology research laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital. From 1995 to 1997, Dr. Feinberg was a medical officer in the Office of AIDS Research in the Office of the Director of NIH, the chair of the NIH Coordinating Committee on AIDS Etiology and Pathogenesis Research, and an attending physician at the NIH Clinical Center. During this period, he also served as executive secretary of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection. Prior to joining Merck in 2004, Dr. Feinberg served as professor of medicine and microbiology and immunology at the Emory University School of Medicine, as an investigator at the Emory Vaccine Center, and as an attending physician at Grady Memorial Hospital. At UCSF and Emory, Dr. Feinberg and colleagues were engaged in the preclinical development and evaluation of novel vaccines for HIV and other infectious diseases and in basic research studies focused on revealing fundamen- tal aspects of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Dr. Feinberg also founded and served as the medical director of the Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center—a clini- cal research facility devoted to the clinical evaluation of novel vaccines and to translational research studies of human immune system biology. In addition to his other professional roles, Dr. Feinberg has also served as a consultant to, and a member of, several IOM and NAS committees. Dr. Feinberg currently serves as a member of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and is a mem- ber of the Board of Trustees of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Dr. Feinberg has earned board certification in internal medicine; he is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, a member of the Association of American Physicians, and the recipient of an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award from the Pediatric AIDS Foundation and an Innovation in Clinical Research Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

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 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION J. Patrick Fitch, Ph.D., is laboratory director for the National Biodefense Analy- sis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) and president of Battelle National Bio- defense Institute, LLC (BNBI). BNBI manages and operates the NBACC national laboratory for the Department of Homeland Security as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) established in 2006. NBACC’s mis- sion is to provide the nation with the scientific basis for awareness of biological threats and attribution of their use against the American public. Dr. Fitch joined Battelle in 2006 as vice president for Biodefense Programs after more than 20 years of experience leading multidisciplinary applied science teams at the Uni- versity of California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). From 2001 to 2006, he led the LLNL Chemical and Biological National Security Pro- gram (CBNP), with applied science programs from pathogen biology to deployed systems. CBNP accomplishments include performing more than 1 million assays on national security samples; setting up and operating 24/7 reach-back capabili- ties; setting up a nationwide bioalert system; receiving three R&D 100 awards; designing signatures for validated assays in the CDC Laboratory Response Net- work and the National Animal Health Laboratory Network; and designing. His advisory board activities have included the U.S. Animal Health Association, Texas A&M University DHS Center of Excellence, Central Florida University (College of Engineering), Colorado State University (College of Engineering), California State Breast Cancer Research Program, and Biomolecular Engineering. Dr. Fitch was a fellow of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery and an associate editor of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing. He has received two national awards for medical devices, a technical writing award for an article in Science, and an international best paper award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He also co-invented the technology, developed the initial business plan, and successfully raised venture investments for a medical device start-up company. Dr. Fitch received his Ph.D. from Purdue University and B.S. from Loyola College of Maryland. Capt. Darrell R. Galloway, M.S.C., Ph.D., is chief of the Medical Science and Technology Division for the Chemical and Biological Defense Directorate at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. He received his baccalaureate degree in microbiology from California State University in Los Angeles in 1973. After completing military service in the U.S. Army as a medical corpsman from 1969 to 1972, Captain Galloway entered graduate school and completed a doctoral degree in biochemistry in 1978 from the University of California, followed by two years of postgraduate training in immunochemistry as a fellow of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation in La Jolla, California. Captain Galloway began his Navy career at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, where he served as a research scientist working on vaccine development from 1980 to 1984. In late 1984,

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 APPENDIX D Captain Galloway left active service to pursue an academic appointment at Ohio State University, where he is now a tenured faculty member in the Department of Microbiology. He also holds appointments at the University of Maryland Biotech- nology Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He has an international reputation in the area of bacterial toxin research and has published more than 50 research papers on various studies of bacterial toxins. In recent years, Captain Galloway’s research has concentrated on anthrax and the development of DNA-based vaccine technology. His laboratory has contributed substantially to the development of a new DNA-based vaccine against anthrax that has completed the first phase of clinical trials. Captain Galloway is a member of the ASM and has served as president of the Ohio branch of that organization. He received an NIH Research Career Development Award. In 2005, Captain Gal- loway was awarded the Joel M. Dalrymple Award for significant contributions to biodefense vaccine development. S. Elizabeth George, Ph.D., is deputy director, Biological Countermeasures Portfolio Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. Until it merged into the new department in 2003, she was program manager of the Chemical and Biological National Security Program in the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nonproliferation Research and Engineering. Significant accomplishments include the design and deployment of BioWatch, the nation’s first civilian biological threat agent moni- toring system, and PROTECT, the first civilian operational chemical detection and response capability deployed in the Washington, DC area subway system. Previously, she spent 16 years at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, National Health and Ecological Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, where she was branch chief of the Molecular and Cellular Toxicology Branch. She received her B.S. in biology in 1977 from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni- versity and her M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology in 1979 and 1984, respectively, from North Carolina State University. From 1984 to 1986, she was a National Research Council (NRC) fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Larry Claxton at EPA. Dr. George is the 2005 chair of the Chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense Gordon Research Conference. She has served as councillor for the Environmental Mutagen Society and president and secretary of the Genotoxicity and Environ- mental Mutagen Society. She holds memberships in the ASM and the AAAS and is an adjunct faculty member in the School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M University. She is a recipient of the EPA Bronze Medal and Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards and the DHS Under Secretary’s Award for Science and Technology. She is author of numerous journal articles and has presented her research at national and international meetings.

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 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION Jesse L. Goodman, M.D., M.P.H., is director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), which oversees medical, public health, and policy activities concerning the development and assessment of vaccines, blood products, tissues, and related devices and novel therapeutics, including cellular and gene therapies. He moved to the FDA full-time in 2001 from the University of Minnesota, where he was professor of medicine and director of the Division of Infectious Diseases. A graduate of Harvard College, he received his M.D. from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine; did residency and fellowship training at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he was also chief medical resident; and is board certified in internal medicine, oncology, and infectious diseases. He trained in the virology laboratory of Jack Stevens at UCLA and has had an active labora- tory program in the molecular pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In 1995, his laboratory isolated the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and subsequently characterized fundamental events involved in the infection of leukocytes, including their cellular receptors. He is editor of the book Tick Borne Diseases of Humans published by ASM Press in 2005 and is a staff physician and infectious diseases consultant at the NIH Clinical Center and the National Naval Medical Center-Walter Reed Army Medical Center, as well as adjunct pro- fessor of medicine at the University of Minnesota. He is active in a wide variety of clinical, public health, and product development issues, including pandemic and emerging infectious disease threats; bioterrorism preparedness and response; and blood, tissue, and vaccine safety and availability. In these activities, he has worked closely with CDC, NIH, and other HHS components, academia, and the private sector, and he has put into place an interactive team approach to emerg- ing threats. This model was used in the collaborative development and rapid implementation of nationwide donor screening of the U.S. blood supply for West Nile virus. He has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) and to the IOM. Eduardo Gotuzzo, M.D., is principal professor and director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humbolt, Universidad Peruana Cayetan Here- dia in Lima, Peru, as well as chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital. He is also an adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo is an active member of numerous international societies and has been president of the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (2000-2003), the IDSA Scientific Program (2000-2003), the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994 to present), president- elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996-1998), and presi- dent of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991-1992). He has published more than 230 articles and chapters as well as six manuals and one book. Recent honors and awards include being named an honorary member of the American

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 APPENDIX D Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 2002, an associate member of the National Academy of Medicine in 2002, an honorary member of the Society of Internal Medicine in 2000, and a distinguished visitor at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina, in 1999. In 1988 he received the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the Field of Infectious Diseases awarded by Trnava University, Slovakia. Jo Handelsman, Ph.D., is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute professor in the Departments of Bacteriology and Plant Pathology and chair of the Department of Bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UW, Madison). She received her Ph.D. in molecular biology from the UW, Madison, in 1984 and joined the faculty of UW, Madison, in 1985. Her research focuses on the genetic and functional diversity of microorganisms in soil and insect gut communities. She is one of the pioneers of functional metagenomics, an approach to access- ing the genetic potential of unculturable bacteria in environmental samples. In addition to her research program, Dr. Handelsman is nationally known for her efforts to improve science education and increase the participation of women and minorities in science at the university level. She co-founded the Women in Sci- ence and Engineering Leadership Institute at UW, Madison, which has designed and evaluated interventions intended to enhance the participation of women in science. Her leadership in women in science led to her appointment as the first president of the Rosalind Franklin Society and her service on the National Acad- emies’ panel that wrote the 2006 report Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, which documented the issues of women in science and recommended changes to universities and federal funding agencies. In addition to more than 100 scientific research publications, Dr. Handelsman is co-author of two books about teaching: Entering Mentoring and Scientific Teaching. Dr. Handelsman is the editor-in-chief of DNA and Cell Biology, and the series Controversies in Science and Technology, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Life Sciences and the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats. She is a National Academies mentor in the life sciences, a fellow in the American Academy of Microbiology and AAAS, director of the Wisconsin Program for Scientific Teaching, and co-director of The National Academies’ Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology. In 2008, she received the Alice Evans Award from the American Society for Microbiology in recognition of her mentoring. In 2009, she received the Carski Award from the American Society for Microbiology in recognition of her teach- ing contributions, and she was named “A Revolutionary Mind” by Seed Magazine in recognition of her unorthodox ideas. Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D., is the director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID), at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a component of NIH-HHS. As director of DMID she has responsibil-

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00 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION Hughes worked initially on foodborne and waterborne diseases and subsequently on infection control in healthcare settings. He served as director of CDC’s Hos- pital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes’ career has been on building partnerships among the clinical, research, public health, and veterinary communities to prevent and respond to infectious diseases at the national and global levels. His research interests include emerg- ing and reemerging infectious diseases; antimicrobial resistance; foodborne dis- eases; healthcare-associated infections; vectorborne and zoonotic diseases; rapid detection of and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism; strengthening public health capacity at the local, national, and global levels; and prevention of water-related diseases in the developing world. Dr. Hughes is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American College of Physicians, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, a member of IOM, and a councillor of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Stephen A. Johnston, Ph.D., is currently director of the Center for Innovations in Medicine in the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. His cen- ter focuses on formulating and implementing disruptive technologies for basic problems in health care. The center has three divisions: Genomes to Vaccines, Cancer Eradication, and DocInBox. Genomes to Vaccines has developed high- throughput systems to screen for vaccine candidates and is applying them to predict and produce chemical vaccines. The Cancer Eradication group is working on formulating a universal prophylactic vaccine for cancer. DocInBox is devel- oping technologies to facilitate presymptomatic diagnosis. Dr. Johnston founded the Center for Biomedical Inventions (also known as the Center for Translation Research) at the University of Texas-Southwestern, the first center of its kind in the medical arena. He and his colleagues have developed numerous inventions and innovations, including the gene gun, genetic immunization, TEV (tobacco etch virus) protease system, organelle transformation, digital optical chemistry arrays, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, and others. He also was involved in transcription research for years, first cloning Gal, then later discovering functional domains in transcription factors and the connection of the proteasome to transcription. He has been professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and associate and assistant profes- sor at Duke University. He has been involved in several capacities as an adviser on biosecurity since 1996 and is a member of the WRCE SAB and a founding member of BioChem 20/20. Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., is associate provost and associate dean for global health at Boston University and Boston University School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infectious

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0 APPENDIX D diseases, and two years as an NIH research associate at the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979 he moved to Tufts Medi- cal School and New England Medical Center in Boston to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious diseases. In 1986 he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as division chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious dis- eases and HIV/AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003, he was associate director for international research and director of the Fogarty International Center at NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of ASCI, the Association of American Physicians, the ASM, and the IDSA. He has received the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the IOM. Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is director of the National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases at CDC. She became director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases at CDC in December 2005 and led its transition to the current centers. She is a graduate of the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, where she obtained both her bachelor’s degree in science and her medical doctorate degree. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. She is also a clinical associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University. She began her CDC career in 1980 as an epidemic intelligence service officer in the Hospital Infections Program. She later served as a medical epidemi- ologist in CDC’s Retrovirus Diseases Branch, where she made major contributions to defining the epidemiology of non-HIV retroviruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) in the United States and developing guidance for counseling HTLV-infected per- sons. Following the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in the southwestern United States in 1993, she led CDC’s efforts to set up national surveillance for the syndrome. Prior to becoming director of NCID, she was acting deputy director and, before that, associate director for epidemiologic science, NCID. Additional positions held at CDC include associate director for science and deputy director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. She played a leading role in developing CDC’s blood safety programs and its food safety programs related to viral diseases. She also had a key role in CDC’s responses to outbreaks of new and/or reemerging viral infections including Nipah, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, and monkeypox. She led CDC’s field team to the nation’s capital during the public health response to the anthrax attack of 2001. She is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, a member of the American Epidemiologic Society, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Council of State and Territorial

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0 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION Epidemiologists. She served on FDA’s Blood Product Advisory Committee and on its Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee. She also served on IDSA’s Annual Meeting Scientific Program Committee and serves on the society’s National and Global Public Health Committee. She is a graduate of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University and of the Public Health Leadership Institute at the University of North Carolina. Lonnie J. King, D.V.M., is currently director of CDC’s new National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Dr. King leads the center’s activities for surveillance, diagnostics, disease investigations, epidemiol- ogy, research, public education, policy development, and disease prevention and control programs. NCZVED also focuses on waterborne, foodborne, vectorborne, and zoonotic diseases of public health concern, which also include most of CDC’s select and bioterrorism agents, neglected tropical diseases, and emerging zoonoses. Before serving as director, he was the first chief of the agency’s Office of Strategy and Innovation. In 1996, Dr. King was appointed dean of the Col- lege of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. He served for 10 years as dean of the college. As dean, he was the chief executive officer for academic programs, research, the teaching hospital, diagnostic center for population and animal health, basic and clinical science departments, and outreach and continu- ing education programs. As dean and professor of large animal clinical sciences, Dr. King was instrumental in obtaining funds for construction of the $60 million Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, initiated the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the college, served as the campus leader in food safety, and had oversight for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center. He brought the Center for Integrative Toxicology to the college and was the university’s designated leader for counterbioterrorism activities for his college. Prior to this, Dr. King was administrator for USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Dr. King served as the country’s chief veterinary officer for five years and worked extensively in global trade agreements within the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization. Before beginning his government career in 1977, he was in private veterinary practice for seven years in Dayton, Ohio, and in Atlanta, Georgia. He received his B.S. and D.V.M. from Ohio State University in 1966 and 1970, respectively. He earned his M.S. in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota while on special assignment with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1980. He received his master’s in public administration from the American University in Washington, DC in 1991. Dr. King has a broad knowledge of animal agriculture and the veterinary profession through his work with other government agencies, universities, major livestock and poultry groups, and private practitioners. Dr. King is a board-certified member of the American College of Veterinary Preven- tive Medicine and has completed the senior executive fellowship program at Harvard University. He served as president of the Association of American Vet-

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0 APPENDIX D erinary Medical Colleges from 1999 to 2000 and was vice chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues from 2000 to 2004. Dr. King helped start the National Alliance for Food Safety, served on the Governor’s Task Force on Chronic Wasting Disease for the State of Michigan, and was a member of four NAS committees; most recently, he chaired the National Academies Com- mittee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. Dr. King is one of the developers of the Science, Politics, and Animal Health Policy Fellowship Program, and he lectures extensively on the future of animal health, emerging zoonoses, and veterinary medicine. He served as a consultant and member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to CDC’s National Center for Infectious Diseases and is a member of the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats. Dr. King was an editor for the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Sci- entific Review on Emerging Zoonoses, is a current member of FDA’s Board of Scientific Advisors, and is president of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society. Dr. King was elected to the IOM in 2004. Col. George W. Korch, Ph.D., is commander, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, Maryland. Dr. Korch attended Boston University and earned a B.S. in biology in 1974, followed by postgraduate study in mammalian ecology at the University of Kansas from 1975 to 1978. He earned his Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in immunology and infectious diseases in 1985, followed by postdoctoral experi- ence at Johns Hopkins from 1985 to 1986. His areas of training and specialty are the epidemiology of zoonotic viral pathogens and medical entomology. For the past 15 years, he has also been engaged in research and program management for medical defense against biological pathogens used in terrorism or warfare. Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed post- graduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983 he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB in 1997, serving first as chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecu- lar virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a long-standing interest in antiviral and vaccine develop- ment and has served as chair of FDA’s Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee. He is the past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of

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0 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION the WHO Programme on Vaccine Development. He is past chair of the NCID- CDC Board of Scientific Counselors and currently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program. He was co- chair of the NAS Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, and he recently chaired an IOM study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats. Edward McSweegan, Ph.D., is a program officer at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. He graduated from Boston College with a B.S. in biology in 1978. He has an M.S. in microbiology from the University of New Hampshire and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Rhode Island. He was an NRC associate from 1984 to 1986 and did postdoctoral research at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. McSweegan served as an AAAS diplomacy fellow in the U.S. State Department from 1986 to 1988 where he helped to negotiate science and technology agreements with Poland, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. After moving to NIH, he con- tinued to work on international health and infectious disease projects in Egypt, Israel, India, and Russia. Currently, he manages NIAID’s bilateral program with India, the Indo-U.S. Vaccine Action Program, and he represents NIAID in the HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program with Russia and related countries. He is a member of AAAS, the ASM, and the National Association of Science Writers. He is the author of numerous journal and freelance articles. Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D., is professor of epidemiology and founding director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University. He returned to Columbia in 2000 after four years in government service as program manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures Program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics Program. Before coming to Columbia, he was assistant professor of virology at the Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. He is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paper- back, 1996), which was selected by American Scientist for its list of 100 Top Sci- ence Books of the 20th Century, and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He was a founding section editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an editor-in-chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID-NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses, for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses-infections. He has served as a member of the IOM-NAS Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health, chaired its Task Force on Viruses, and was a contributor to the resulting report Emerg- ing Infections (1992). He was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft

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0 APPENDIX D Transplantation, and he currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections (now the Forum on Microbial Threats). Dr. Morse also served as an adviser to WHO and several government agencies. He is a fel- low of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past chair of its microbiology section, a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology of the American Col- lege of Epidemiology, and an elected life member of the Council on Foreign Rela- tions. He was the founding chair of ProMED, the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases, and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Michael T. Osterholm, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the Center for Infec- tious Disease Research and Policy and director of the NIH-sponsored Minnesota Center for Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance at the University of Minnesota. He is also professor at the School of Public Health and adjunct professor at the Medical School. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epide- miologist and chief of the acute disease epidemiology section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from NIAID and CDC. He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 300 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best-selling book Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats. He has also served on the IOM Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption, and on the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Pro- gram, and as a reviewer for the IOM report Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response. George Poste, Ph.D., D.V.M., is director of the Biodesign Institute and Del E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999, he was chief science and technology officer and president, Research and Development, of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB, he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. He is chairman of Orchid Cellmark. He serves on the board of directors of Monsanto and Exelixis. He is a distinguished fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and of the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats. Dr. Poste is a board-certified pathologist, a fellow of the Royal Society, and a fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for

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0 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION the advancement of biotechnology. He has published more than 350 scientific papers; has co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology, and infectious diseases; and serves on the editorial board of several technical journals. John C. Pottage, Jr., M.D., has been vice president for Global Clinical Develop- ment in the Infectious Disease Medicine Development Center at GlaxoSmithKline since 2007. Previously he was senior vice president and chief medical officer at Achillion Pharmaceuticals in New Haven, Connecticut. Achillion is a small bio- technology company devoted to the discovery and development of medicines for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and resistant antibiotics. Dr. Pottage initially joined Achillion in May 2002. Prior to Achillion, Dr. Pottage was medical director of antivirals at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. During this time he also served as an asso- ciate attending physician at the Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston. From 1984 to 1998, Dr. Pottage was a faculty member at Rush Medical College in Chicago, where he held the position of associate professor, and also served as the medical director of the Outpatient HIV Clinic at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center. While at Rush, Dr. Pottage was the recipient of several teaching awards and is a member of the Mark Lepper Society. Dr. Pottage is a graduate of St. Louis University School of Medicine and Colgate University. Gary A. Roselle, M.D., received his medical degree from the Ohio State Uni- versity School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at the Northwestern University School of Medicine and his infectious diseases fellowship at the Uni- versity of Cincinnati School of Medicine. He is program director for infectious diseases for the Department of Veterans Affairs Central Office in Washington, DC, as well as the chief of the medical service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Cen- ter. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Divi- sion of Infectious Diseases, at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the VA. He has received commendations from the under secretary for health for the VA and the secretary of veterans affairs for his work in the Infectious Diseases Program for the VA. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings and has published more than 90 papers and several book chapters. Janet Shoemaker is director of the ASM’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regula- tory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological sci- ence society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in ASM projects, including production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System

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0 APPENDIX D Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for ASM; as ASM coordinator of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the NSF and the U.S. Department of State; and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachu- setts and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology and as ASM representa- tive to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and she is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Execu- tives, and AAAS. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology. P. Frederick Sparling, M.D., is the J. Herbert Bate Professor Emeritus of Medi- cine, Microbiology, and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and professor of medicine, Duke University. He is director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center and also the Southeast Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infec- tions. Previously he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America from 1996 to 1997. He was also a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1990-1992) and the IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001-2003). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research has been on the molecular biol- ogy of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His work helped to define the genetics of antibiotic resistance in gonococci and the role of iron-scavenging systems in the pathogenesis of human gonorrhea. Brian Staskawicz, Ph.D., is professor and chair, Department of Plant and Micro- bial Biology, University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Staskawicz received his B.A. in biology from Bates College in 1974 and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1980. Dr. Staskawicz’s work has contributed greatly to understanding the molecular interactions between plants and their pathogens. He was elected to the NAS in 1998 for elucidating the mechanisms of disease resistance, as his lab was the first to clone a bacterial effector gene from a patho- gen and among the first to clone and characterize plant disease resistance genes. Dr. Staskawicz’s research focuses on the interaction of the bacteria Pseudomo- nas and Xanthomonas with Arabidopsis, tomato, and pepper. He has published extensively in this area and is one of the leading scientists in the world working on elucidating the molecular basis of plant innate immunity.

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0 MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND CO-ADAPTATION Terence Taylor is director of the Global Health and Security Initiative and presi- dent and director of the International Council for the Life Sciences (ICLS). He is responsible for the overall direction of the ICLS and its programs, which have the goal of enhancing global biosafety and biosecurity. From 1995 to 2005, he was assistant director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), a leading independent international institute, and president and executive direc- tor of its U.S. office (2001-2005). He studies international security policy, risk analysis, and scientific and technological developments and their impact on politi- cal and economic stability worldwide. He was one of IISS’s leading experts on issues associated with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and their means of delivery. In his previous appointments, he has had particular responsibilities for issues affecting public safety and security in relation to biological risks and advances in the life sciences. He was one of the commissioners to the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq, for which he also conducted missions as a chief inspector. He was a science fellow at the Center for International Secu- rity and Cooperation at Stanford University, where he carried out, among other subjects, studies of the implications for government and industry of the weapons of mass destruction treaties and agreements. He has also carried out consultancy work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the implemen- tation and development of the laws of armed conflict and serves as a member of the editorial board of the ICRC Review. He has served as chairman of the World Federation of Scientists’ Permanent Monitoring Panel on Risk Analysis. He was a career officer in the British Army on operations in many parts of the world, including counterterrorist operations and UN peacekeeping. His publications include monographs, book chapters, and articles for, among others, Stanford University, the World Economic Forum, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Crimes of War Project, the International Herald Tribune, the Wall Street Journal, the International Defence Review, the Independent (Lon- don), Tiempo (Madrid), the International and Comparative Law Quarterly, the Washington Quarterly, and other scholarly journals, including unsigned contribu- tions to IISS publications. Murray Trostle, Dr.P.H., is a foreign service officer with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), presently serving as the deputy director of the Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Unit. Dr. Trostle attended Yale University where he received a master’s in public health in 1978, focusing on health services administration. In 1990, he received his doctorate in public health from UCLA. His research involved household survival strategies during famine in Kenya. Dr. Trostle has worked in international health and devel- opment for approximately 38 years. He first worked overseas in the Malaysian national malaria eradication program in 1968 and has since focused on health development efforts in the former Soviet Union, Africa, and Southeast Asia. He began his career with USAID in 1992 as a postdoctoral fellow with AAAS.

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0 APPENDIX D During his career he has worked with a number of development organizations such as the American Red Cross, Project Concern International, and the Center for Development and Population Activities. With USAID, Dr. Trostle has served as director of the child immunization cluster, where he was chairman of the European Immunization Interagency Coordinating Committee and the USAID representative to the Global Alliance on Vaccines and Immunization. Currently, Dr. Trostle leads the USAID Infectious Disease Surveillance Initiative as well as the Avian Influenza Unit.

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