judicial certification of methodologies, 12, 86

judicial dispositions, 95-109

pressures on system, 4-5, 52-53

pretrial hearings, 92, 99n.57

reliability standard, 9, 10, 12, 86, 88-89, 90, 91, 109, 111, 194

science and law, 12, 86-88

state standards, 95

toolmark and firearm identification, 97, 107-108

American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), 26, 74-75, 76, 173, 209, 214, 223, 225, 228, 259

American Bar Association (ABA), 194, 208-209

American Board of Criminalistics (ABC), 76, 209, 210, 227

American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO), 76, 173, 174, 175, 176, 210

American Board of Forensic Toxicology, 76, 210

American Board of Medicolegal Death Investigators, 30, 210, 259, 267

American Board of Pathology (ABP), 28, 210, 256, 257, 259, 265

American Law Institute, 29, 266

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 205, 272

American Society of Clinical Pathologists, 259-260

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD), 64, 68, 74, 76, 209, 214, 221, 231, 232, 233, 235

Laboratory Accreditation Board, 69, 74, 77, 169, 171, 197-200, 205, 206, 207-208, 214

Anthrax bioterroism attacks, 254, 281

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 69, 280

Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, 65, 67, 69, 280, 281

Arson investigations, 172-173.

See also Explosives evidence and fire debris

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), 28, 257-258, 266

Association of Firearm and Tool Marks Examiners (AFTE), 76, 153, 155, 210

ASTM International, 76, 135, 169, 201

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

administrative, legal, and policy issues, 276

ideal system, 274-275

identification of prints, 52, 139, 269

interoperability challenges, 31, 51-52, 253, 270-271, 272-276

recommendations, 31-32, 277-278

search categories, 269-270

support from policymakers, 275-276

technical challenges, 273-275

vendor cooperation, 31, 276

Autopsies, 9, 30, 49, 50, 56, 86, 242, 243, 247, 248, 249-250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 257, 259, 261-264, 267-268

B

Backlog of cases

defined, 39

impacts on criminal justice system, 37, 77

management and prevention, 14, 15, 61-63, 64, 77, 187

reliability of data on, 62

resource deficiencies and, 14-15, 39-40, 62, 68-69

volume, 39, 58, 66

Ballistic evidence, 44, 151, 152

Bioforensics, 70, 281-282

Biological evidence.

See also Blood;

DNA;

Saliva;

Semen

analyses, 60, 130-132

characteristics, 128

laboratories, 68, 70

reporting of results, 132

sample data and collection, 129-130

summary assessment, 133

Biotoxins and biological agents, 70

Bite mark analysis.

See also Forensic odontology

admissibility of evidence, 107-108, 175

analytical approaches, 64, 174-175

distortion of skin, 174, 176

errors and bias, 47, 174-175, 176

guidelines, 173-174, 175

reporting of results, 175-176

research needs, 175, 176



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