sample data and collection, 173-174, 188

scientific validity, 7-8, 42, 87, 173, 174, 175-176, 188

summary assessment, 176

uniqueness theory, 174, 176

virtopsy and, 254

Bloodstain pattern analysis

analyses, 177-178

bias in, 178

certification, 178, 210

crime scene/event reconstruction, 177

guidelines, 202

investigators, 64

reporting of results, 132

sample data and collection, 177

scientific basis, 158-179

summary assessment, 178-179

Botanical evidence, 128, 134, 161.

See also Trace evidence

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)

CEASEFIRE database, 151

forensic laboratories, 65, 68-69

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 14, 36, 39, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 71, 208, 243 n.18

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 219

C

California Association of Criminalists, 76, 214

Case.

See also Backlog of cases

defined, 36 n.3

CEASEFIRE database, 151

Census of Publicly Funded Crime Laboratories, 14, 36, 39, 58, 59, 64, 66, 71, 199, 200, 208, 219

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29, 196, 260, 263, 266

Public Health Information Network, 260, 273

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), 195, 196

Certification of examiners, 6, 16, 47, 53, 70, 74-75, 77, 78, 137, 147-148, 171, 173, 178, 181, 190, 193, 194, 196, 208-210, 214, 231-232

Chain of custody, 36, 182, 233

Charge to committee, 1-2, 5

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), 195, 196

Codes of ethics, 212-214

Cognitive biases, 122-124, 149

Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), 40, 61, 66, 67, 100, 131-132, 197

Computer crime investigations, 60.

See also Digital and multimedia analysis

Controlled substance evidence

admissibility, 9, 101-102

analyses, 60, 117, 134-135

backlog of cases, 39

certification, 210

characteristics, 133

error sources and rates, 116-117, 135

personnel and equipment shortages, 59

reliability, 101, 136

reporting of results, 135

research, 73

sample data and collection, 86, 134

summary assessment, 135-136

SWGDRUG standards, 134, 135-136, 203-204

training and expertise of examiners, 136

Coroners. See Medical examiners and coroners;

Medicolegal death investigation system

Coverdell. See Paul Coverdell

Crime scene investigation

certification, 210

“CSI effect,” 48, 222

DNA evidence, 41

guidelines, 57

liability issues, 57

practices, 7, 35, 48, 56-57, 129

professional associations, 76-77, 210

research funding, 72, 73, 75

standards and oversight, 57

technologies, 72, 73, 75, 129, 130

training and experience of investigators, 32, 33, 35, 36, 57, 60-61, 64, 129 n.4, 185, 218, 220-221, 227, 285-286

“CSI effect,” 48, 108, 222

Cyber Crime Center, 69, 280



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