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the United States for consumption in nuclear reactors was low-enriched uranium down-blended from bomb-grade material and sold to U.S. utilities through the United States Enrichment Corporation pursuant to the HEU Purchase Agreement. The amendment allows Russia to make direct sales of commercial Russian uranium products to U.S. utilities, beginning in 2011. Russia will be permitted to export relatively small quantities of such uranium during the years 2011 to 2013, and relatively larger quantities from 2014 to 2020,317 at the end of which Russia is scheduled to gain full access to this U.S. market.

Legal Issues Related to Arms Control

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty Expiration in 2012. The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) expires on December 31, 2012. After signing SORT in May 2002, the United States and Russia committed to negotiate transparency measures to accompany the treaty. Such measures have yet to be concluded. In addition, it is not too soon to begin thinking about a follow-on to SORT.

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty Expiration in 2009. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) expires on December 5, 2009. Both sides fulfilled their START reductions several years ago, but they continue to employ the treaty’s verification regime to conduct inspections and exchange data on their deployed strategic nuclear forces. Indeed, SORT, which still does not include substantive verification provisions of its own, has been buttressed by START’s verification procedures. During 2007, the United States and Russia exchanged post-START proposals while some U.S. lawmakers and others urged the two sides to consider exercising START’s five-year extension option.

applicability of anti-dumping measures to sales in the United States of Russian LEU obtained pursuant to enrichment services contracts.


Russian uranium imported for U.S. initial cores (the LEU necessary to start a U.S. nuclear reactor that is entering service for the first time) is exempted from the annual export quotas set forth in the amendment.

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