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proliferation and nuclear terrorism. To comprehensively address the scope of the problem, the program established three primary focus areas: Secure, Reduce, and Sustain.

  • Secure: Install physical security and accountancy upgrades appropriate for the level of material attractiveness and the threat of theft

  • Reduce: Consolidate material into fewer buildings at fewer sites, and convert excess highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium to reduce the number of theft targets and costs

  • Sustain: Encourage the development of Russian capabilities and commitments to operate and maintain these security improvements

The MPC&A program has teamed with two primary entities in Russia to achieve significant risk reduction for special nuclear materials and nuclear weapons in Russia. These two entities are the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom), which was formerly the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), and the Ministry of Defense (MOD). The national security of both the United States and Russia has been enhanced by this cooperation.

The majority of security upgrades under the MPC&A program are to be completed by the end of calendar year 2008. Maintenance and sustainability assistance for these upgrades will be phased out gradually until 2013.59 As U.S. monetary assistance for the MPC&A program gradually phases out, the relationship between the U.S. and Russia in the nuclear security arena should move from one of assistance to equal partnership and joint leadership on the nuclear safety and security global stage. The objective for this new partnership should be to enable expansion of nuclear energy while enhancing nuclear safety and security worldwide. The lessons learned in the MPC&A program can be of significant value in shaping this future partnership.

SCOPE

This paper covers the relevant lessons learned from the MPC&A program that can be used in the formation of a new globally strategic nuclear safety and security partnership between the U.S. and Russia. The paper also covers the nature and goals of this partnership, and a process for facilitating the transition from assistance to a full partnership.

RELATIONSHIP CHANGES FROM ASSISTANCE TO PARTNERSHIP

The Bratislava accords and the NNSA/Rosatom Joint Action Plan call for virtually all MPC&A upgrades to be finished by the end of calendar year 2008.60 Additionally, the Bob

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For further information, see DOE, “FY2007 Congressional Budget Request,” February 2006, available at http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/07budget/Content/Volumes/Vol_1_NSSA.pdf.

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For further information regarding the “Joint Statement by President Bush and President Putin on Nuclear Security Cooperation,” of February 24, 2005, see http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/02/20050224-8.html; accessed February 23, 2008. See also Appendix D for full text of this Joint Statement.



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