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The IAEA offers energy assessment services that build a State’s capability for energy analysis and energy planning, taking into account the country’s economic, environmental, and social development needs. These services treat all energy supply options equally. They are in increasingly high demand and we have been expanding our capacity to offer them.

The G8 Summit in St. Petersburg in 2006 emphasized the importance of “global energy security.”76 At the expanded summit, the IAEA Director General emphasized that global energy security means fulfilling the energy needs of all countries and peoples, including the 1.6 billion people who have no access to electricity and the 2.4 billion who continue to rely on traditional biomass fuels. He also emphasized at that meeting that the current global organization of energy resource management and distribution is quite fragmented in terms of both geographical coverage and the types of energy resources managed. Global structures for setting norms, oversight, and management exist in most other key areas of human activity such as trade, civil aviation, labor relations, and health. However, no similar structure currently exists for energy.77

It is important to note that, as a sophisticated technology, nuclear power requires a correspondingly sophisticated infrastructure. For new countries considering nuclear power, it is essential to ensure that such necessary infrastructure will be available. This infrastructure includes many components from industrial infrastructure such as manufacturing facilities, to the legal and regulatory framework, to the institutional measures to ensure safety and security, to the necessary human and financial resources. The IAEA recently published guidance on the infrastructure needed for countries to introduce nuclear power, and we are working to define a set of milestones for the development of this infrastructure to assist us in prioritizing our support for those Member States.78

Nuclear energy might not be the choice of all countries and some, such as Germany and Sweden, have decided to phase out their nuclear power programs. Other countries have also adopted a policy against the use of nuclear power. However, for those Member States that choose to use nuclear power as part of their energy mix, there is much the Agency can do to make this option accessible, affordable, safe and secure.


The increase in global energy demand is driving a potential expansion in the use of nuclear energy. And concern is mounting regarding the proliferation risks created by the further spread of sensitive nuclear technology, such as uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing. The convergence of these realities points to the need for the development of a new framework for the nuclear fuel cycle.

Nuclear Fuel Supply: Challenges and Opportunities. Available at; accessed May 26, 2008.


See Appendix D for the texts of 2006 G8 St. Petersburg Summit Statements.


“IAEA Chief Calls for Global Framework on Energy Security. New International Pact and Body Needed, He Says,” Staff Report, July 21, 2006. Available at; accessed May 26, 2008.


IAEA, “Milestones in the Development of a National Nuclear Infrastructure for Nuclear Power,” Nuclear Energy Series, N. NG-G-3.1, Vienna, 2007. Available at; accessed May 26, 2008. See also, IAEA, “Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme,” Vienna, 2007; available at Power/Downloads/Launch_NPP/07-11471_Launch_NPP.pdf.

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