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identified the procedural basis for future work. Funding for a number of priority projects was provided based on major recommendations formulated in SMP-1.

Development of stage two [SMP-2] was assigned to a Program Development Team (PDT) comprised of the most eminent experts from a number of relevant organizations. The PDT was set up under the auspices of the Foundation for Environmental Safety of Power Engineering co-located within IBRAE.

The PDT was reinforced and supplemented by an international consultant (IC) that included representatives from Fluor Ltd. and British Nuclear Group Project Services (BNG PS). In compliance with the Terms of Reference (ToR), the IC was integrated into the PDT structure and tasked to perform IC functions for each individual goal spelled out in the ToR. To illustrate, the IC was responsible for review and consulting, as well as for sharing of the most recent western experience on a wide range of issues associated with SMP development.

According to the ToR, the SMP must:

  • serve as a basis for strategic decision-making by the Russian Federation in such domains as management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive and toxic waste produced during project implementation

  • be conducive donor nations’ technical and economic project evaluations based on such benchmarks as an increased level of safety and security in the region, better physical protection of nuclear materials, and an improved environmental status

  • facilitate decision-making with due regard to relevant interests of the Russian Federation and donor nations


First, in characterizing the entire scope of accomplished work, I would like to stress that a systemic approach was used at all stages of SMP development. One of the fundamental principles of such an approach is planning ‘from the top down.’ This methodology implies sequential development of increasingly detailed plans for achieving end objectives of the program. This is logically illustrated in Figure 1 below.

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