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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life 3 Renewal Focus Area SHRP 2 Renewal program goal: To develop a consistent, systematic approach to performing highway renewal that is rapid, causes minimum disruption, and produces long-lasting facilities. The continued mobility demands placed on the nation’s highway system mean that renewal work often must be performed while a highway facility remains in service. This requirement introduces significant safety, mobility, and economic concerns. The public demands that the work be done quickly, with as little social and economic disruption as possible, and in such a way as to reduce future interventions to a minimum. The resulting safety, economic, financial, management, environmental, aesthetic, and technological challenges are formidable enough for an individual project; meeting these challenges on a nationwide scale will require the development of an entirely new way of approaching highway renewal. SHRP 2 RENEWAL RESEARCH The strategic objectives of the SHRP 2 Renewal focus area address three needs: (a) to complete renewal of existing highways quickly, (b) to do so with minimal disruption to the community, and (c) to produce facilities that are long-lasting. These objectives—often referred to by the shorthand phrase “rapid renewal”—have been achieved under special, high-profile circumstances (see examples in Box 3-1). SHRP 2 Renewal research is aimed at instituting a new way of thinking about highway renewal so that the benefits of rapid renewal can be achieved consistently and systematically rather than
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life Box 3-1 EXAMPLES OF RAPID RENEWAL PROJECTS Contractor Incentives Accelerate Construction Project in California On Sunday, April 29, 2007, a gasoline tanker traveling through the “MacArthur Maze” interchange on westbound 80 to southbound 880 toward San Jose, California, overturned and caught fire. The intense heat caused the steel frame of the freeway to soften, and the eastbound 580 connector above collapsed onto the 880 connector, forcing closure of two major arterials in the interchange. The governor issued an emergency declaration the same day that allowed for streamlining of public contracting and permitting codes and provided emergency funding to enable repair operations to begin immediately. The California Department of Transportation estimated that repairs to the damaged section of the MacArthur Maze would cost $5.2 million. For every day short of the June 26, 2007, deadline, the agency offered a $200,000 bonus, up to $5 million total. The highest bid was $6.4 million. The construction firm C. C. Myers of Rancho Cordova won the job with the low bid of $867,075. The company had a plan to get the job done rapidly enough to earn the entire bonus. Crews were on the job less than an hour after the contract was signed. Work continued 24 hours a day in 12-hour shifts. The first vehicles traveled on a repaired interchange on the evening of May 24, approximately 25 days after the incident had occurred. Full Road Closures Reduce Project Duration in Several States In certain circumstances, full road closure can be less disruptive than attempting to maintain traffic through a construction area: The Delaware Department of Transportation (DOT) rehabilitated a 6.1-mile section of roadway between Wilmington, Delaware, and the Pennsylvania state line. The project included rehabilitation of pavement, bridges, the drainage system, lighting and safety features, and 10 interchange ramps. Full directional road closures were used to reduce the construction time from 2 years to 185 days. The Oregon DOT used full directional closures when it repaved the Banfield Freeway in Portland. The use of full closures reduced the time for the paving portion of the project from 32 nights to 2 full weekends. The Michigan DOT used full closure to speed construction and improve safety when it rehabilitated part of the Lodge Freeway in Detroit. The use of full closure reduced the construction time from 6 months to 53 days. SOURCES: FHWA 2007a; FHWA 2008a.
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life only on isolated special projects. This new way of doing business is built on more collaborative relationships and decision making; better integration of management, planning, design, construction, and maintenance; and more synergistic use of technologies and methods so that optimal benefits can be realized from complementary sets of innovations. Benefits The benefits of rapid renewal are many. The most immediate benefit is reduced disruption for users of the roadway, as well as adjacent businesses and property owners. This benefit can be realized through avoidance of delays from construction, a decrease in the time a facility may experience reduced capacity or local businesses may be inconvenienced, and less construction noise for adjacent businesses and property owners. Less delay for trucks means reduced freight transportation costs and overall benefits to the economy. In addition, more collaborative decision making may contribute to streamlined project delivery. Performance specifications and nondestructive testing reduce the number of people required to ensure high-quality results; resources previously devoted to quality verification can be redirected to building and maintenance. Smoother pavements promote fuel efficiency (Amos 2006) and reduce noise (Wayson 1998). Renewal using recycled materials benefits the environment by avoiding the additional energy consumption associated with the production of new materials. Shorter construction times reduce exposure to work zone crashes, which killed more than 1,000 people in 2005 and injure more than 40,000 each year (FHWA 2007b). In the long run, the largest benefit will come from an increase in the life of highway assets. Bridges and roads that last longer mean billions of taxpayer dollars saved, as well as less frequent disruption from future renewal activities. Tactics Renewal time in the field can be defined as the time it takes to complete those on-roadway construction activities that affect traffic flow and the communities and businesses that rely on the roadway for services. Rapid renewal applies innovative approaches or technologies to reduce the time traditionally allocated to these on-roadway activities, thereby minimizing
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life the impact on users and communities. SHRP 2 Renewal research is organized around seven tactics that are roughly aligned with the three strategic objectives of rapid renewal. These tactics are described below. The specific research projects included under each tactic are listed in Appendix B. Tactic 1: Perform Faster In Situ Construction This tactic addresses high-intensity construction projects performed on a compressed schedule. Carrying out such projects is not just a matter of working harder and faster to build a road, but of employing innovative technologies to replace the old ways of doing things and adapting roadway and bridge designs to optimize the use of these technologies. It also means completing preliminary engineering tasks, such as the timely relocation of public utilities, before construction begins. Utility relocation is one of the major causes of construction delay. This tactic also addresses the development of techniques and guidelines better suited to renewal construction, such as performance specifications and rapid nondestructive testing. Tactic 2: Minimize Field Fabrication Effort This tactic involves approaches that can minimize the amount of fabrication performed at the project site, thus speeding up the on-site construction phase of the work—the part that actually affects traffic. The SHRP 2 Renewal plan will address prefabrication, modular construction, and innovative installation strategies for bridges and pavements as part of this tactic. Rapid construction systems such as modular pavements and prefabricated bridges or bridge elements can help reduce traffic disruption by permitting elements of pavements, bridges, and other roadway infrastructure to be built off-site and then installed in assembly-line fashion. Off-site construction also permits more intensive quality control, thus improving the level of performance and longevity of the highway infrastructure. Tactic 3: Perform Faster Construction Inspection and Monitoring To be rapid, a renewal project must be built and accepted quickly before being opened to the public. This tactic addresses the need for innovative, high-speed inspection and monitoring processes that can ensure that the desired quality and performance are obtained.
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life Tactic 4: Facilitate an Innovative and Equitable Contracting Environment One of the main challenges facing agencies on rapid renewal projects is the vastly accelerated pace of construction. Decisions that once took days to make must be made in hours, or even minutes. Such decisions must also be made in concert with the construction contractor or construction management consultant. This need for partnership demands a reassessment of risk sharing among the partners. Research conducted in support of this tactic focuses on developing performance-based specifications that afford the contractor greater construction control while managing agency risk, as well as on reexamining the allocation of risk inherent in the special nature of accelerated construction. Tactic 5: Improve Customer Relationships Planners of renewal projects must accommodate the needs and rights of utilities and railroads that share roadway rights-of-way to keep renewal projects on schedule and budget. SHRP 2 research will provide new, streamlined permitting and relocating processes that allow for the timely and efficient progression of renewal projects for agencies, utilities, and railroads. The research will also produce recommendations for the institutional and procedural changes necessary for implementation of those processes. Tactic 6: Design and Construct Low-Maintenance Facilities Producing long-lasting facilities not only reduces ownership costs but also significantly reduces disruption to users over a facility’s life cycle. This tactic addresses requirements for designing new or rehabilitating existing facilities so as to reduce the frequency and magnitude of future maintenance activities. The goal is to integrate performance-related designs with innovative construction processes that result in long-life solutions. The products of research under this tactic will narrow the gap in professional practice between design life and actual performance. Tactic 7: Preserve Facility Life Extending facility life through proactive preservation activities demonstrates good stewardship of the public’s investment while significantly reducing disruption. This tactic focuses on techniques that can be used to
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life preserve the life of existing facilities in good condition, thus extending the periods between major reconstruction efforts. Research under this tactic will yield products needed to achieve the preservation of roadways that carry high traffic volumes. PROMISING PRODUCTS, AND POTENTIAL USERS, INCENTIVES, AND BARRIERS The projects carried out under Renewal research will yield many products that fall into two general categories: technology and project delivery. Products in the technology category include materials, equipment, designs, and other tools for directly carrying out the renewal work. Products in the project delivery category support the three objectives of the Renewal focus area by addressing construction and asset management, quality control, and institutional arrangements between transportation agencies and their many partners. Products under each category are described below. Technology Products Many of the Renewal technology products relate to the road infrastructure itself. For example, several projects deal with pavement technologies. Modular pavements can greatly increase the speed of pavement renewal. Composite pavements can contribute to long-lasting roadways by exploiting the specific advantages of different pavement materials. Renewing existing pavements in place can also speed the renewal process and produce longer-lasting facilities. SHRP 2 will develop pavement systems, design guides and procedures, model specifications,1 construction procedures, and training materials to support these pavement innovations. Bridge-related technologies form another major category of SHRP 2 Renewal products. Two research projects are aimed at developing bridges with service lives of 100 years or more. The research will refine bridge designs to extend the service life of those bridge systems, subsystems, and components that typically deteriorate most quickly. By addressing both the 1 SHRP 2 is not a standards-setting or specifications authority. The research will produce scientific and technological information that such authorities can use to produce formal standards and specifications.
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life overall structure and its components, a design can be optimized to achieve a long life for the entire facility. A number of innovative bridge technologies already exist, such as modular prefabricated bridge decks and other components that can facilitate rapid construction and long life (see Box 3-2). However, use of these innovations requires some modifications of standard design approaches and new bridge designs that are more compatible with existing innovative construction techniques and technologies. Needed as well are new construction techniques and technologies that are compatible with existing and potential new bridge systems. In general, optimization of designs and materials contributes to long life, but current designs do not reflect constructability, material performance, and in-service performance considerations to the extent necessary to achieve this strategic objective. SHRP 2 will develop design procedures, standard plans, design examples, contracting tools, and training materials to facilitate the use of promising bridge innovations. While pavement and bridge technologies may be the most obvious elements of highway renewal, other less visible elements are just as important. The condition of soil and foundations for bridges and pavements is critical to rapid construction and long-lived facilities. SHRP 2 will study existing materials and technologies for soil improvement, rapid embankment construction, and pavement stabilization, and it will develop guidelines and design procedures, as well as a construction certification program, for use of these technologies. Another hidden element that affects rapid renewal is the presence, location, and type of underground utilities. Discovery of unexpected utilities or incorrect information about their location or type can be dangerous and often results in significant delays as construction must stop until the situation can be resolved with the utility owners. SHRP 2 is investigating the state-of-the-art of technologies that can be used to locate and characterize underground utilities and will produce guidelines and training materials for their application. Soils and utilities are not the only hidden factors relevant to rapid renewal. Designers want to know the current condition of existing facilities—for example, whether steel-reinforcing bar has deteriorated or whether there are voids in a concrete pavement—to determine the type of renewal required. In addition, during construction and after a facility has been renewed, the quality of materials and workmanship must be determined—for instance, whether
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life Box 3-2 ACCELERATED BRIDGE TECHNIQUES Innovative materials, equipment, and techniques can significantly accelerate bridge renewal and provide longer-lasting structures. Prefabrication of bridges or bridge elements, for example, saves time by reducing work performed at the construction site. The result is reduced traffic disruption, improved safety, reduced impact on other transportation modes (railroads or waterways beneath the bridge), less impact on wetlands, less noise, and shorter duration of adverse impact on local businesses. Prefabrication off-site in a controlled environment can improve constructability by reducing impacts of weather and can enhance construction quality by ensuring more consistent materials and procedures. Standardization of identical components can reduce initial construction costs, and higher quality lowers life-cycle costs. The following are examples of the use of prefabrication and other innovative approaches to bridge renewal: Utah is the first state DOT in the country to be transitioning to accelerated bridge construction (ABC) as standard practice. Utah’s family of ABC products includes standards for the use of multiaxle computer-controlled platform vehicles, called self-propelled modular transporters (SPMTs), to remove and install bridges. In summer 2008, Utah replaced a dozen bridges on and over Interstate highways, in each case resulting in only days of impact to motorists. Each superstructure was constructed adjacent to the site and then quickly driven into final position on SPMTs (AASHTO TIG 2008; Utah DOT 2008). The George P. Coleman Bridge in Yorktown, Virginia, is the largest double-swing-span bridge in the country. By 1995 the number of vehicles crossing the bridge had doubled since it was built, and the movable spans needed repair. A wider replacement bridge was built nearby, and the six spans were barged to the site complete with roadway striping, traffic railing, and light poles. The existing bridge was dismantled and the new bridge erected in just 9 days (FHWA 2008b). The deck of the historic Lewis and Clark Bridge on Route 433 between Washington State and Oregon was completely replaced with no impact on peak period traffic through the use of SPMTs. SPMTs were used to remove the old bridge deck and install new prefabricated deck panels on the mile-long bridge, reducing impact on traffic and exposure of workers to hazardous conditions (FHWA 2006). New Jersey replaced three bridges on Route 1 over Olden Avenue Connector and Mulberry Street in Trenton in three weekends by using prefabricated superstructures. The use of prefabrication allowed the deteriorated decks to be replaced
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life with no impact on peak-hour traffic. These bridges are expected to have a 75- to 100-year life, significantly more than the typical 50-year life of other bridges in the area (FHWA 2006). The Belt Parkway Bridge over Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn was lengthened and widened with no lane closures during peak traffic hours through the use of prefabricated bridge components. The entire design–build project was completed in 14 months, including a 3-month winter shutdown. Construction would have taken 3 to 4 years with conventional methods (FHWA 2006). the pavement has been fully compacted or whether a material has finished curing. The more rapidly quality can be verified, the more quickly the road can be reopened to traffic. Such questions have typically been answered by means of time-consuming destructive sampling and testing: a sample of a pavement is removed and brought to a laboratory for analysis; a sample of new material is set aside for a prescribed number of days and stressed to failure in the laboratory to test its strength. Nondestructive tests that can be applied in the field provide answers more quickly. SHRP 2 will evaluate such tests and perform proof-of-concept research; for technologies that prove worthwhile, test procedures and training materials will be developed. Project Delivery Products SHRP 2 products in the project delivery category address barriers to rapid renewal that exist beyond the design and construction activities directly associated with a given renewal project. These barriers relate to management and institutional issues that must be addressed for rapid renewal to be applied more widely. Projects in this area are closely related to those in the technology category. For example, while one technology project addresses technologies that can locate and characterize underground utilities, a project in the project delivery category addresses the broader issue of the relationship between utility companies and highway agencies. The latter research is exploring means of improving communication and decision making between these very different entities to promote cooperation and attainment of the priorities of each. Box 3-3 provides an example of how better coordination of utility relocation can contribute to reduced duration of
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life Box 3-3 EXAMPLE OF BENEFITS FROM A PROJECT DELIVERY PRODUCT The Links I Utility Corridor This project involved relocating the utility facilities of several different companies in advance of the reconstruction of State Road 60 in Tampa, Florida. The project constructed a separate structure, 10 feet wide by 10 feet deep, that housed 12 utilities stacked vertically with staggered horizontal placement, and a separate service road for access and maintenance. The coordinated relocation of utilities reduced the overall duration of the construction project from 7 to 5 years. SOURCE: www.tfhrc.gov/FOCUS/june07/03.htm. construction. The products of the research will include a manual of best practices and model cooperative agreements. Similarly, renewal projects often entail coordination with railroads that cross or abut highway rights-of-way. Highway agency–railroad interactions can cause significant delay, yet this is an issue not easily addressed by technology. SHRP 2 is examining ways to improve communication and coordination with railroads to promote mutually beneficial outcomes in dealing with roadway renewal projects. Products of this work will be analogous to those developed in the project related to utilities. Use of some of the pavement, bridge, and geotechnical technologies described under the technology product category will require additional nontechnological support. For example, the benefits of composite and modular pavements and innovative bridge elements are predicated on their long-term performance. Highway agencies need to know how to specify such performance, as well as how to measure whether it has been delivered. SHRP 2 will provide the data and guidelines needed to develop performance specifications in lieu of the traditional materials and methods specifications used for more common technologies. This move from methods and materials to performance specifications can affect risk allocation among agencies, contractors, and suppliers. SHRP 2 is assessing the shifting allocation of risk and developing guidelines and training materials to aid agencies and contractors in managing project risk effectively.
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life Frequent episodes of pavement or bridge maintenance can be just as disruptive as construction, particularly on highways with high traffic volume. To exploit the life-cycle benefits of renewal while minimizing disruption, timely and effective preservation activities are needed. SHRP 2 will develop methods and data to help agencies perform life-cycle analyses of long-lived facilities, along with draft preservation guidelines focused on high-volume roads. A major challenge to implementing the products of the Renewal focus area will be delineating how this wide variety of products can be used together effectively to achieve the objectives of rapid renewal. This is to some extent a question of packaging and communication, but even more of developing tools to help users assess the needs of their own projects and determine the optimal suite of technologies and techniques for their circumstances. The synergistic relationships among technologies need to be identified, and guidelines for combining them strategically must be developed. Potential Users, Incentives, and Barriers The foregoing description of Renewal projects suggests a wide array of potential users. Highway agencies at the state, regional, and local levels will be the primary users of most of the products. But even within these agencies there are many different potential users. Pavement and bridge designers, geotechnical engineers, utilities coordinators, construction inspectors, and project managers will use different products at different stages of the renewal process. Incentives for agency personnel to use the products of Renewal research include minimizing traffic disruption; providing better facilities; improving life-cycle costs; streamlining project delivery; and achieving better working relationships with utilities, railroads, and adjacent businesses and property owners. Agency personnel will not assume the risks of innovation unless they develop a high level of trust in the innovation and in those promoting it. Building trust will be key to successful implementation. Despite the incentives, agencies face significant barriers to innovation. Many innovations that lower life-cycle costs and user costs (by reducing delay) have higher initial construction costs; this is especially true for the first use of an innovation by an agency. Given restricted budgets and pressure to start projects in multiple jurisdictions at once, many agencies may
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life find it difficult to carry out fewer projects with higher initial costs in a given year. They will need information and resources to articulate the benefits of rapid renewal in terms that are meaningful to the public and to political leaders. They may also need legislative or regulatory changes to allow the use of new approaches—for example, to allow a life-cycle rather than initial low-bid procurement procedure or to utilize an innovation that includes a proprietary element. Agencies will also need training and technical support to guide them through the implementation of innovative approaches. They may need financial assistance as well to cover the delta (additional) costs associated with demonstrating a new technology. Highway design and construction is a world sharply bounded by standards and specifications. These are the tools with which agencies safeguard the public treasury and secure the public safety. If efforts to implement SHRP 2 Renewal products do not recognize and accommodate the special role of standards, widespread implementation may founder. An intensive effort to develop consensus standards for the application of SHRP 2 Renewal products must proceed among standards-setting organizations in parallel with other implementation activities. As implementation progresses, lessons learned will need to be reflected in the evolution of prototypical or provisional standards. Another simple but significant barrier to innovation faced by many public agencies is restrictions on travel, sometimes even if the travel is paid for by others. New technologies, such as individual web-based training, webinars, and teleconferences, can help overcome this barrier by providing training remotely. Nevertheless, technology transfer is a people-oriented activity, and the benefits of face-to-face communication and hands-on experience with new technologies cannot be overstated. Local agencies in particular will need active outreach and support. Purchases of new equipment, the development of new specifications and standards, and training all cost money that may not be in agency budgets. Contractors and suppliers of materials and equipment will use products related to their lines of business; they may be particularly interested in the performance specifications, model contract language, and risk manual. They will be concerned about what the highway agencies will require of them and how it will affect their competitive position. Some may welcome the changes as an opportunity to compete on the basis of quality and speed
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life provided through innovation. More collaborative approaches can lead to fewer claims. Others may feel threatened by change and require more outreach and support to identify the innovations that will work best in their business model. Effective methods of engaging contractors will include incentives to innovate. The distribution of risk associated with some rapid renewal techniques may result in more risk being borne by the contractor. Distribution of the burden of risk to those most capable of bearing it must be addressed up front by all parties and reflected in contract documents, project compensation, and incentive structures. A strong commitment to partnership between agency and contractor must exist for both parties to move forward successfully in implementing innovations. Both parties will experience a learning curve, and the agency’s willingness to share the risk at the outset will facilitate implementation. Other potential private-sector users include engineering and design consultants. They will also need to learn how to use the new designs and materials, and changes in their internal design and project management procedures may be required. Utility companies and railroads will be users of the research aimed at promoting coordination and cooperation between these entities and highway agencies. At the heart of this research is the question of incentives for and barriers to cooperation. Utilities and railroads have business objectives that differ from those of agencies that renew roads and highways. Each entity needs to have reason to see itself as a partner in the renewal effort, with something to gain as well as something to contribute. Local businesses and neighbors will not be direct users of Renewal products, but they will be affected by the use of those products. Outreach to these affected parties should take place early and as often as necessary to keep them fully informed about how renewal will influence their businesses and daily lives. It may be helpful to describe alternative scenarios to highlight the benefits of differing strategies and to solicit their input into decisions closely affecting them. Other important potential users of Renewal products are teachers, professors, and researchers. For rapid renewal strategies to take hold as ordinary operating procedures, universities will have to incorporate them into their highway engineering and construction management curricula. Training and certification programs for engineering technicians and construction
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life workers will also need to incorporate the new technologies. Researchers will need to direct their investigations toward rapid renewal approaches, building on and going beyond what has already been developed. CONCLUSION Incorporation of the SHRP 2 Renewal research products into standard business practices will be challenging but rewarding. What were once viewed as highly innovative measures employed for use only on special projects will become the normal way of doing business. Stakeholders will modify the ways they think and act, and possibly the ways their organizations are structured. The highway transportation community is large, complex, and generally risk averse. Small innovations are sometimes easier to implement than those that require a paradigm shift. Time and dedicated resources will be required to create an environment in which the highway community will embrace innovations that promise long-term benefits and may require a substantial change in organizational behavior and business practices. SHRP 2 Renewal products must be applied systematically over an extended period of time for such change to take place. REFERENCES Abbreviations AASHTO TIG American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Technology Implementation Group FHWA Federal Highway Administration Utah DOT Utah Department of Transportation AASHTO TIG. 2008. Self-Propelled Modular Transporters. http://tig.transportation.org/?siteid=57&pageid=2478. Accessed Oct. 13, 2008. Amos, D. 2006. Smoothness and Fuel Efficiency: An Analysis of the Economic Dimensions of the Missouri Smooth Road Initiative. Final Report. OR07-005. Missouri Department of Transportation, Jefferson City, Dec. FHWA. 2006. Pre-Fabricated Bridge Elements and Systems (PBES) Cost Study: Accelerated Bridge Construction Success Stories. Office of Bridge Technology. FHWA. 2007a. Innovator: Accelerating Innovation for the American Driving Experience. Issue 3, Oct. www.fhwa.dot.gov/hfl/innovator/issue03.cfm#a3.
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Implementing the Results of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life FHWA. 2007b. Work Zone Safety Facts and Statistics. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/wz_facts.htm. Accessed July 9, 2008. FHWA. 2008a. Innovator: Accelerating Innovation for the American Driving Experience. Issue 6, April–May. www.fhwa.dot.gov/hfl/innovator/issue06.cfm#FullRoadClosureCutsWorkZoneCongestion. FHWA. 2008b. Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems. www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/prefab/elements.cfm?elems=Superstructure. Accessed Oct. 13, 2008. Utah DOT. 2008. Accelerated Bridge Construction. www.dot.state.ut.us/main/f ?p=100:pg:3542944038143528:::1:T,V:1991. Accessed Oct. 13, 2008. Wayson, R. L. 1998. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 268: Relationship Between Pavement Surface Texture and Highway Traffic Noise. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.