Managing Food Safety Practices FROM FARM TO TABLE

Workshop Summary

Leslie Pray and Ann Yaktine, Rapporteurs

Food Forum

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Leslie Pray and Ann Yaktine, Rapporteurs Food Forum Food and Nutrition Board

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported between the National Academy of Sciences and Contract Nos. AG-3A94-C-09-0025 (U.S. Department of Agriculture), N01-OD-4-2139 (Na- tional Institutes of Health), and HHSF223200811169P (Food and Drug Adminis- tration). Additional support came from Abbott Laboratories, Cargill, Coca-Cola Company, ConAgra Foods, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Kraft Foods, Mars, McDonalds, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Monsanto, and PepsiCo. Any opinions, find- ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13166-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13166-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at www.iom.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2009. Managing food safety prac- tices from farm to table: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNINg COMMITTEE ON FuTuRE TRENDS IN FOOD SAFETy: CHANgINg MARkET FORCES, EMERgINg SAFETy ISSuES, AND ECONOMIC IMPACT1 MICHAEL P. DOyLE (Chair), University of Georgia, Griffin DAVID W.k. ACHESON, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD RHONA APPLEBAuM, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA JANET BEAuVAIS, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario JuLIE CASWELL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst EDWARD gROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, NY ALICE H. LICHTESTEIN, Tufts University, Boston, MA DONNA PORTER, Library of Congress, Washington, DC Study Staff ANN yAkTINE, Study Director gERALDINE kENNEDO, Administrative Assistant Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing 1 the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. 

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FOOD FORuM1 MICHAEL P. DOyLE (Chair), University of Georgia, Griffin RHONA APPLEBAuM, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA JAMES D. ASTWOOD, ConAgra Foods Inc., Omaha, NE JANET BEAuVAIS, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario SuSAN BORRA, International Food Information Council JuLIE CASWELL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst CELESTE A. CLARk, Kellogg Company, Battle Creek, MI DAVID B. COCkRAM, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH DICk CRAWFORD, McDonalds Corporation, Oak Brook, IL SuSAN J. CROCkETT, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN ERIC A. DECkER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst NED gROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, New York BRENDA HALBROOk, Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC DARLENE HARDIE-MuNCy, Cargill, Wayzata, MN JERRy HJELLE, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO VAN S. HuBBARD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD JOSEPH A. LEVITT, Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P., Washington, DC DONNA PORTER, Library of Congress, Washington, DC STEPHEN F. SuNDLOF, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC WILLIAM SVEuM, Kraft Foods, Glenview, IL PETER VAN DAEL, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN CATHERINE E. WOTEkI, Mars, Incorporated, McLean, VA DEREk yACH, PepsiCo, Purchase, NY , Study Staff ANN yAkTINE, Study Director (through February 2009) CAITLIN BOON, Study Director gERALDINE kENNEDO, Administrative Assistant LINDA D. MEyERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. i

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Independent Report Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Larry R. Beuchat, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia Jenny Scott, Food Safety Programs, Grocery Manufacturers Association Jennifer Weber, American Dietetic Association Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eileen T. kennedy, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. ii

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODuCTION 3 2 RECENT OuTBREAkS IN FOOD PRODuCTS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST EXPERIENCE 15 3 THE COMPLEXITIES OF FOOD SAFETy AND SOME STRATEgIC APPROACHES BEINg TAkEN 43 4 THE WAy FORWARD: VARyINg PERSPECTIVES 65 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 91 B Workshop Participants 95 C Speaker, Moderator, and Discussant Biographies 99 D Acronyms and Abbreviations 105 ix

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