need to improve our understanding of climate change and satisfy the growing demand for information and analysis to inform action. An inability to meet public expectations would compromise the effectiveness of the new climate change research program. Since the future costs of climate change are expected to greatly exceed the current cost of the federal program, investing now in climate change research should lead to reduced costs for responding, coping with, and adapting to the consequences of climate change. Not investing is a choice we cannot afford to make.

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