Countering Biological Threats

Challenges for the Department of Defense’s Nonproliferation Program Beyond the Former Soviet Union

Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons in States Beyond the Former Soviet Union

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia

Development, Security, and Cooperation

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons in States Beyond the Former Soviet Union Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DTRA01-02-D-0003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13176-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13176-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13703-4 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13703-9 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2009926975 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eur- asia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON PREVENTION OF PROLIFERATION OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN STATES BEYOND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION Adel A. F. Mahmoud, Chair, Princeton University David A. Ashford, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Sao Paulo, Brazil Gail H. Cassell, Eli Lilly and Company Claire Cornelius, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Timothy Endy, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University Harvey Rubin, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Richard L. Witter, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (retired) Consultant Susanna K. Partridge, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Research Council Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Patricia Koshel, Senior Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Anne Harrington, Director, Committee on International Security and Arms Control Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Merc Fox, Senior Program Assistant, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia 

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Carol Blair, Colorado State University; John Clements, Tulane University; Scott Dowell, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; David Franz, Midwest Research Institute; Christopher Howson, March of Dimes; Michael Imperiale, University of Michigan; James LeDuc, University of Texas at Galveston; Henry Metzger, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Alfred Watkins, the World Bank; and Tilahun Yilma, University of California at Davis. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mary Jane Osborn, Uni- versity of Connecticut, and Rita Colwell, University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully consid- ered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. In addition to the formal reviewers of the report, there were many others ii

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS who offered their time and expertise over the course of the study’s develop- ment. Appendixes A and B identify many of the individuals and organizations that provided important insights for the committee. Also, we would like to single out the excellent support provided by Shawn Cali, manager of the Bio- logical Threat Reduction Program, who responded on short notice to many requests from the committee for information. Adel A. F. Mahmoud, Chair National Research Council Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons in States Beyond the Former Soviet Union Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council

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Contents Summary 1 Introduction 13 1 Security Context for Geographical Expansion of the Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense 25 2 Capacities of Developing Countries to Counter Biological Threats 47 3 Applicability of Biological Threat Reduction Approaches in the Former Soviet Union to Other Developing Countries 59 4 Biosecurity-Related Activities of Other Organizations 91 5 Policy and Program Coordination and Integration 111 6 Recommendations 119 Appendixes A Presenters at Committee Meetings 129 B Organizations that Provided Background Information 131 C Summary Reports of Field Visits 133 D Organizations Considered by the Biological Threat Reduction Program as Stakeholders in the Program 143 ix

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x CONTENTS E Selected Department of Defense Entities with Relevant Programs 145 F Selected U.S. Government Departments and Agencies with Relevant Programs 151 G Activities of International Organizations 159 H International Health Regulations 167 I Selected Foundations 173 J Interagency International Bio-Engagement Working Group 177 K Relevant Studies 179 L Biographies of Committee Members 183