In March 2008, the NRC entered into a contract with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), acting on behalf of DOD, to carry out this study. This report sets forth the findings and recommendations of the Committee on the Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons in States Beyond the Former Soviet Union, which was established by the NRC to undertake the study.2

Also included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Section 1306) was a provision calling for an NAS study of new initiatives for the CTR Program. In response, a separate report has been prepared by the NRC Committee on Strengthening and Expanding the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Program and is scheduled to be released in March 2009.3 Since that report covers issues in the nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile fields, there is some overlap with this report. Nevertheless, each report stands on its own, and they are intended to be complementary.

DOD and the U.S Congress will be important audiences for this report. At the same time, BTRP has far-reaching implications for many governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the United States and abroad. Thus, the report should also be of wide interest to officials, health and agriculture practitioners, researchers, entrepreneurs, industrialists, foundation leaders, and policy analysts in several countries.


The four tasks to be addressed in the study as set forth in the legislation and in the subsequent contract between NAS and DTRA are as follows:

  1. An assessment of the capabilities and capacity of governments of developing countries to control the containment and use of dual-use technologies of potential interest to terrorist organizations or individuals with hostile intentions.

  2. An assessment of the approaches to cooperative threat reduction used by the states of the FSU that are of special relevance in preventing the proliferation of biological weapons in other areas of the world.4

  3. A brief review of programs of the U.S. government and other governments, international organizations, foundations, and other private-sector enti-


See Appendix L for biographical information on the committee members.


National Research Council Committee on Strengthening and Expanding the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. 2009. Global Security Engagement: A New Model for Cooperative Threat Reduction. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.


Congressional staff members have clarified for the committee that the intent of Congress was to limit “the approaches to cooperative threat reduction” to the approaches undertaken by the states of the FSU in cooperation with BTRP and not include approaches that may have been undertaken unilaterally by the states or through other international programs. This is the interpretation used in this report.

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