Indonesia), with field sites in Cambodia and Singapore; and Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (Lima, Peru), with a field site in Iquitos, Peru. NMR&D also has a medical liaison officer at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. (www.med.navy.mil/sites/nmrc/Pages/index.htm)

Following are additional details on some key NMR&D units:

  • NAMRU-3 holds cooperative research agreements with institutions in Egypt and other areas in the region for the surveillance of influenza, dengue, and antimalarial drug resistance. Cohort studies are currently being conducted for zoonotic diseases, arbovirus infections, and enteric pathogens in selected communities throughout Egypt. (namru3.med.navy.mil/Default/aspx)

  • NAMRU-2, located in Indonesia, has expanded operations to other countries in Southeast Asia, including Laos, Singapore, Thailand, and Cambodia. Recently, NAMRU-2 helped Laos implement the Early Warning Outbreak Recognition system, which provides the only electronic system of disease outbreak recognition and warning in the country. (www.nmrc.navy.mil/namru_2.htm)

  • U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya’s activities include comprehensive regional monitoring for drug resistance in malaria and enteric pathogens, etiology identification of undiagnosed hemorrhagic fever, use of remote sensing in assessing risk from vector-borne diseases, and analyses of atypical transmission patterns throughout eastern Africa. (usamrukenya.org)

  • Naval Medical Research Unit, located in Peru, works in collaboration with the ministries of health and defense in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Research interests include antibiotic and antimalarial drugs’ resistance patterns in pathogens, arbovirus maladies, and diarrheal diseases. (www.nmrc.navy.mil/nmrcd.htm)

  • Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science, situated in Bangkok, Thailand, operates as a joint American-Thai military medical research institute with both U.S. and Royal Thai Army components. The U.S. component functions as a special foreign activity of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in Washington, D.C., and of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Scientific publications have covered Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis A, dengue, hepatitis E, traveler’s diarrhea, malaria, and drug-resistant scrub typhus. (www.afrims.org)

18TH MEDICAL COMMAND

The 18th Medical Command provides a comprehensive system of Theater Health Support to the Eighth United States Army and all supported forces throughout the Korean Theater of Operations during both peacetime engagements and combat operations. Primary infectious disease concerns for United States Forces Korea include avian and human influenza, hantavirus, Japanese encephalitis, scrub typhus, malaria, pulmonary syndrome, leptospirosis, murine



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