climate patterns that affect disease emergence and thus provide early warning of disease outbreaks. The initial focus of the program is Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (


The Global Health and Security Initiative promotes the safe and secure practice of the life sciences by encouraging the safeguarding of access to dangerous pathogens, the prevention of misuse of technology and information, and the improvement of global capacity for countering biological threats through enhanced disease surveillance, in particular through early detection and response. (

The initiative also provides support to the International Council for the Life Sciences to establish regional and national networks on best practices, standards, and training in biosafety and biosecurity. It has helped establish two regional disease surveillance consortia—the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance and, in cooperation with the Rockefeller Foundation, the Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance Network. (


The Rockefeller Foundation is providing support for regional disease surveillance networks by building human capacity and promoting collaboration across countries and regions, as well as with global monitoring programs. It has supported the Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance Network (described in Chapter 4 in the section on the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s Global Health and Security Initiative) and the East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network. Several grants have also been provided to ministries of health in the Mekong Basin region. The foundation has provided grants to the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya to strengthen animal disease surveillance. (


The Sloan Foundation supports a range of small projects to address the threat of bioterrorism, including work on citizen preparedness, incentives for business, pandemic preparedness, and dangerous research. Examples of their work include citizens’ guides, efforts to enhance building security and improve heating and air conditioning systems to reduce possible exposures to aerosols, and work with WHO to develop avian influenza preparedness guidance for health workers. (

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