Appendix L
Biographies of Committee Members

ADEL A. F. MAHMOUD (Chair), M.D., Ph.D., is a professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. He recently retired as president of Merck Vaccines of Merck & Company, Inc. Dr. Mahmoud served at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals as chairman of medicine and physician-in-chief. Dr. Mahmoud’s academic pursuits focused on investigations of the determinants of infection and disease in human schistosomiasis and helminthic infections. He has led the effort to develop new vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, shingles, and human papillomavirus. Dr. Mahmoud’s leadership in setting global health strategies shaped the agenda of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine in recent years by tackling such topical issues as biological threats and bioterrorism; severe acute respiratory syndrome; and pandemic influenza. He is a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Parasitic Diseases of the World Health Organization. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1987, and he is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity and Committee on Scientific Communications and National Security. Dr. Mahmoud received an M.D. from the University of Cairo and a Ph.D. from the University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.


DAVID A. ASHFORD, D.V.M., is the regional director for international services in the Sao Paulo office of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Previously, he was team leader for research and special projects in the Public Health Emergency Preparedness Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While at CDC, he served as team leader for review of epidemiological and scientific issues related to public health emergency preparedness and response, with an emphasis on



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Appendix L Biographies of Committee Members ADEL A. F. MAHMOUD (Chair), M.D., Ph.D., is a professor at the Wood- row Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. He recently retired as president of Merck Vaccines of Merck & Company, Inc. Dr. Mahmoud served at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals as chairman of medicine and physician-in-chief. Dr. Mahmoud’s academic pursuits focused on investiga- tions of the determinants of infection and disease in human schistosomiasis and helminthic infections. He has led the effort to develop new vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, shingles, and human papillomavirus. Dr. Mahmoud’s leadership in setting global health strategies shaped the agenda of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine in recent years by tackling such topical issues as biological threats and bioterrorism; severe acute respiratory syndrome; and pandemic influenza. He is a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Parasitic Diseases of the World Health Organization. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1987, and he is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity and Committee on Scientific Communications and National Security. Dr. Mahmoud received an M.D. from the University of Cairo and a Ph.D. from the University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. DAVID A. ASHFORD, D.V.M., is the regional director for international ser- vices in the Sao Paulo office of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Previously, he was team leader for research and special projects in the Public Health Emergency Preparedness Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While at CDC, he served as team leader for review of epidemiological and scientific issues related to public health emergency preparedness and response, with an emphasis on 

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 APPENDIX L biological and chemical terrorism. In addition, he serves as a subject matter expert for biological and chemical threat agents and interagency liaison on environmental health issues related to terrorism preparedness. As an expert on the epidemiology and control of zoonoses, his responsibilities include serv- ing on several international and domestic steering committees, teaching, and developing or contributing to domestic and international guidelines. He has extensive experience in dealing with relevant officials and facilities throughout Latin America. GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is vice president, scientific affairs, and Distin- guished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases at Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis, Indiana. Currently, Dr. Cassell is a member of the Science Board of the Food and Drug Administration’s Advisory Committee to the Com- missioner. Since 1996, she has been a member of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program responsible for advising the respective governments on joint research agendas. Dr. Cassell served as an advisor on infectious dis- eases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. She has additionally served two terms on the Liaison Com- mittee on Medical Education, the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools. Dr. Cassell obtained her B.S. from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham, which selected her as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Major CLAIRE CORNELIUS, D.V.M., is pursuing a Ph.D. in microbiology as part of a U.S. Army Long-Term Health Education and Training opportunity at the University of Chicago. Her research interests include plague pathogenesis and vaccine design. Previously, she served as post veterinary officer, Guanta- namo Bay, Cuba; force veterinarian, Multinational Forces and Observers, Sinai Peninsula, with duty in Egypt and Israel; and branch chief, Yokosuka Branch Veterinary Services, Japan, with additional duty in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, and Indonesia in support of public health and civic action programs. She has been a member of two research teams investigating malaria and hemorrhagic viruses in the Amazon basin, Iquitos, Peru. TIMOTHY ENDY, M.D., serves as associate professor of medicine at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York. Dr. Endy specialized in virology and emerging diseases at the U.S. Army Military Component in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1996 to 2001. Dr. Endy subsequently served in the Department of Virology at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, as assistant chief and then chief of the division. From July 2003 until his retirement at the rank of colonel in 2006, Dr. Endy served as director of the Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology

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 APPENDIX L of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He has published extensively on the topic of infectious disease. In 2007, he served on the National Research Council Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons. Dr. Endy received an M.P.H. from the University of Michigan and an M.D. from the Uniformed Services University. HARVEY RUBIN, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor at the University of Pennsyl- vania School of Medicine, where he has served as faculty since 1983. He also serves as professor of computer and information sciences at the University of Pennsylvania School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Dr. Rubin is additionally director of the university’s Institute for Strategic Threat Analysis and Response and serves as a member of the School of Medicine Curriculum Committee. He was house officer in medicine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hos- pital in Boston and did his fellowship in infectious diseases at Harvard and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. As a member of the International Commit- tee of the National Science Advisory Board for Biological Security, Dr. Rubin regularly follows developments involving dual-use issues throughout the world. He received his Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of Pennsylvania and his M.D. from Columbia University. RICHARD L. WITTER, D.V.M, Ph.D., served as a veterinary medical officer with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) in East Lansing, Michigan, for 38 years (1964-2002). He currently serves as collaborator with the ADOL and as adjunct professor with the Department of Pathobiology and Clinical Investigations at Michigan State University. Dr. Witter helped develop the first successful vaccine in the United States against Marek’s disease and has documented the evolution of this virus to greater virulence. He has received numerous awards and recognition for his research. For more than 22 years, as director and research leader of ADOL, Dr. Witter administered a multidisci- plinary research program on the biology of important avian viral neoplasms, as well as programs on recombinant DNA vaccines, immunogenetics, transgenic chickens, and genome mapping. He returned to the bench in 1998, where he pursued his personal research on Marek’s disease and avian leukosis until his retirement in 2002. He has been active in international activities involving grants programs in the Middle East and Central Asia. He helped initiate the ARS-Former Soviet Union Scientific Cooperation Program and has served as a scientific consultant to this program since its inception. Dr. Witter received his B.S. and D.V.M. from Michigan State University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1998.

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