conflict of interest policies, 40, 138, 139, 176

on funding of continuing medical education, 151

industry relations, 34

American Medical Student Association, 63, 76, 131, 234

American Psychiatric Association, 220

American Society of Clinical Oncology, 72

Architecture profession, 328336

Association of American Medical Colleges

on authorship and speaking fees, 155

conflict of interest policies, 40, 62, 92

on continuing medical education, 151

on industry gifts, 137138

on industry-sponsored scholarships and training positions, 139

on institutional conflicts of interest, 221223, 229

research rules, 8, 2930, 62, 76, 80, 82, 92, 110112, 116

restrictions on industry access, 133

role in strengthening and implementing policies, 230, 231, 233

on uses of drug samples, 136

Association of American Universities, 8, 2930, 39, 62, 110111, 221223, 229, 233

B

Basic research. See Research, medical

Bayh-Dole Act, 9798

Biomedical research. See Research, medical

Biotechnology companies

benefits of collaborative relationships, 2324, 44, 98, 99

concerns about relationships, 2, 5, 24, 35, 166167, 189190

historical evolution of professional relationships with, 34, 101

recommendations regarding financial relationships, 18, 20, 90, 94, 95, 187

research and development process, 23, 99

See also Collaborative relationships in medicine;

Medical product companies;

Pharmaceutical companies;

Research, medical

Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, 190191

Brandeis, Louis, 67

C

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 191

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 170, 191

Charitable giving to institutions, 158

Clinical practice guidelines

challenges in development of, 189

conflict of interest concerns, 1, 13, 25, 189190, 193196, 203204, 210211

current shortcomings, 192

current strategies and policies to prevent bias in development of, 204210

definition and purpose, 189, 190

development costs, 194

disclosure of funding for, 201, 203

dissemination, 196, 199

evolution of, 190192

financial relationships in development of, 198204

groups in development of, 194, 196198

identification of bias, 25

implications of recommendations for individuals and organizations, 214215

importance of, 25

industry involvement, 194196

objective procedures for development of, 43

panel membership, 1314, 2021, 211, 212213

political sensitivity, 191

public participation, 14

publication requirements, 21

quality of evidence base for, 193194, 210

recommendations, 1314, 2021, 210214

role of professional organizations in promoting transparency of, 21

standardization of presentation and assessment of, 208210

systematic reviews in development of, 190, 193194, 207208



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