Appendix C
Needs Matrix

This Appendix summarizes the committee’s initial assessments of technology needs that led to its short list of technology gaps and the gap analyses presented in Chapter 2.



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Appendix C Needs Matrix This Appendix summarizes the committee’s initial assessments of tech- nology needs that led to its short list of technology gaps and the gap analy- ses presented in Chapter 2. 

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Relevant to Site? [(x) 0 Medium- to = our view] Long-Term EM Cleanup Problem or Issue Technology Need OR HAN ID SR Technology Approaches Supporting decisions concerning “how Technical basis to x x x x Develop a generic technical approach and clean is clean”: tanks, subsurface support evaluation data insofar as possible for doing site-specific remediation, facility D&D of alternative risk- performance and cleanup technology assessments informed approaches for capped burial grounds, capped engineered structures (tanks, vaults, canyons, reactors), and the extent of decontamination required Increasing the rate at which low-activity Improved/alternative x (x) 1. Improved/alternative LAW stabilization waste (LAW) is converted to a final LAW waste treatment technology waste form technology 2. Improved/alternative tank waste processing technology to feed LAW stabilization Unexplained increases in mercury (Hg) Understanding Hg in x (x) Develop a mechanistic understanding of the concentrations in the environment the environment chemistry, transport, and biology of Hg in the environment and key receptor species Ensuring continuity of knowledge/ Continuity of x x x x Systematically identify and prioritize threats to the experience due to impending retirements knowledge continuity of knowledge and the inability to maintain critical and stable level of funding to support high- priority technology areas Removing nonradioactive chemicals Improved separations x x More selective and efficient approaches to such as Al, Cr, Na from sludge technology removing nonradioactive chemicals from sludge wastes Develop accurate simulants Removing key radionuclides—Cs, Sr, Improved separations x x More selective and efficient approaches, including TRU, Tc—from sludge technology alternatives, to removing key radionuclides from supernatants

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Increasing the rate at which proccessed Improved HLW x x 1. Improve instrumentation to reduce batch high-level waste (HLW) is converted to stabilization technology holding times a final waste form 2. Alternative high-throughput melters 3. Improve ability of glass to incorporate waste 4. Alternative HLW forms 5. Develop accurate simulants Tank cleanout with many physical Improved retrieval x x Chemical approaches to removing waste from obstructions (coils, debris, and annuli) technology surfaces that do not degrade the tanks or cause downstream problems Physical approaches to isolate or corral debris while retrieving waste to the maximum extent practical Physical approaches to demolish and remove internal tank structures to allow access for waste retrieval and reduce intrusion pathways Lack of capability to predict Understanding x x x x Broad-based understanding of source mobilization, contaminant mobility in varying contaminant mobility transport, and degradation for organic and situations. Includes bioactivity, inorganic species in the subsurface reactivity with environment, releases from deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), changes in hydrology with building removal Predicting the long-term performance of Understanding the x x x x 1. Broad-based understanding of the performance caps, liners, and reactive barriers behavior of engineered of caps and liners in the context of their natural containment barriers environment 2. Broad-based understanding of the performance and longevity of reactive barriers 

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Relevant to Site? [(x)  Medium- to = our view] Long-Term EM Cleanup Problem or Issue Technology Need OR HAN ID SR Technology Approaches Faster methods to gather the solids Improved retrieval (x) x x x Faster physical approaches (e.g., pushers) that still from waste tanks while minimizing the technology keep water volume increase low amount of water introduced into tanks Predicting the long-term performance of Understanding the (x) x x x 1. Extend the current duration for predicting saltstone (including effects of chemicals behavior of engineered the performance of cementious materials not from sludge washing), saltstone vaults, containment barriers containing waste constituents grouted tanks, grouted pipelines 2. Obtain capability to predict the performance of cementious materials containing waste constituents Separating solids from supernatant and Improved separations x x 1. More efficient, reliable, and compact mobilized sludge streams technology technologies to separate solids from liquids 2. Develop accurant simulants Supporting changes in regulations that Technical basis to x x x x 1. Develop a comparison of the risks and costs of allow improvement in productivity and support evaluation the current approach to removing transite from safety for workers, for example, transite of alternative risk- facilities and an approach involving use of remote removal informed approaches systems. 2. Develop remote systems for removing transite panels from buildings well aboveground to provide a basis for the comparative evaluation Characterization and remediation of Remote techologies x (x) (x) (x) 1. Automated remote systems and robots dangerous buildings contaminated with deploying sensors for radionuclides, asbestos, and hazardous materials organic chemicals 2. Automated remote systems and robots deploying tools to remove equipment, decontaminate surfaces and remove deposits of radionuclides and chemicals, and remove asbestos from pipes and equipment

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Nuclear materials, wastes, and spent Technical basis to x x x x Develop generic technical approaches and fuels having no disposal path support evaluation data for site-specific use, and specific techncial of alternative risk- approaches and data for multisite issues, to informed approaches provide a technical basis for risk-informed changes to treatment, waste acceptance criteria, and regulations Developing cost-effective, in situ Improved remediation (x) x (x) (x) 1. Capability to retrieve most of the toxic remediation of carbon tetrachloride, technology materials in subsurface plumes Cr+6, Cs, U, Sr, and other contaminant 2. Capability for fixing or destroying toxic species plumes in subsurface plumes that is sustainable over the long term Retrieval or control of buried Improved remediation x (x) x (x) 1. Capability to locate hot spots contaminants (including pyrophoric technology 2. Capability to retrieve hot spots and backfill material) from hot-spot sources without impairing function of existing engineered barriers 3. Capability to stabilize hot spots in situ Disaggregation/size reduction of residual Improved retrieval x x 1. Chemical approaches that do not degrade the clinkers, gravel, and recalcitant surface technology tanks or cause downstream problems deposits in waste tanks 2. Focused physical approaches (e.g., focused water jets, grinders) Efficient and safe human access to Better worker (x) (x) x (x) Lighter and cooler PPEs to allow workers to dangerous environnments protection equipment safely remain longer in the presence of hazardous airborne materials Handling shear thickening sludges Understanding of x 1. Predictive understanding of sludge behavior sludge behavior (chemical and physical) as a function of its content and environment 2. Develop accurate simulants Underground piping cleanout and Improved retrieval (x) x x x Technology to clean and close clogged pipelines closure technology 

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Relevant to Site? [(x)  Medium- to = our view] Long-Term EM Cleanup Problem or Issue Technology Need OR HAN ID SR Technology Approaches Long-term monitoring of closed Improved monitoring x x x x Capability for sustainable remote monitoring facilities and engineered barrier systems technology around and within engineered facilities and barriers Long-term monitoring strategies and Improved monitoring x x x x Capability for sustainable remote subsurface devices for contaminants in soil and technology monitoring groundwater and deep vadose zones Determining moisture flux through Improved subsurface (x) x (x) (x) Develop real-time capability to measure water flux representative waste sites, including characterization through engineered barriers vegetated and graveled surfaces, accounting for seasonal variations in precipitation and heating and development of barriers to moisture infiltration Predicting the long-term performance Understanding the 1. Broad-based understanding of the performance of construction concrete (e.g., canyons, behavior of engineered of engineered barrier systems in the context of reactors) that is intact or reduced to containment barriers their natural environment grouted rubble 2. Broad-based understanding of the performance of reactive barriers 3. Extend the current duration for predicting the performance of cementitious materials not containing waste constituents 4. Obtain predictive capability to predict the performance of cementitious materials containing waste constituents

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Increased HLW storage tank capacity Technical basis to x x 1. Develop a risk-informed comparison of the support evaluation current approach and an approach involving of alternative risk- additional waste tanks which would lead to more informed approaches waste being retrieved by using more water 2. Extend the current understanding of tank waste chemistry to provide a basis for combining wastes now believed to be incompatible Detailed analysis for determining Technical basis to x x Develop a generic technical approach and proposed alternative end-state support evaluation data insofar as possible for doing site-specific acceptance criteria or performance of alternative risk- performance and remediation technology assessment for large contaminated informed approaches assessments for greenfield and rubbleized/grouted structures such as canyon buildings facilities such as canyons and reactors Determining how to characterize the Improved subsurface (x) x (x) (x) 1. Extended the capabilities of High Resolution subsurface if there is a large amount of characterization Resistivity/Subsurface Geophysical Exploration to subsurface piping or other structures areas with large amounts of infrastructure and to areas with comingled plumes from nearby cribs and trenches 2. Develop noninvasive subsurface characterization technologies for humid sites Field screening methods for packaged Improved technology x x x Advanced, real-time assay and characterization waste to characterize actinide content for characterizing techniques for fissile material, key radionuclides, with high radiation backgrounds difficult wastes and and other paramaters (e.g., moisture content) materials for materials with high neutron and/or gamma background Reducing future Al additions to HLW Remove Al cladding x Technology to efficiently and inexpensively declad tanks from fuels before Al-clad fuels dissolution 

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Relevant to Site? [(x)  Medium- to = our view] Long-Term EM Cleanup Problem or Issue Technology Need OR HAN ID SR Technology Approaches Technical impracticality waiver Technical basis to x Develop a generic technical approach and support evaluation data insofar as possible for doing site-specific of alternative risk- performance and remediation technology informed approaches assessments to support consideration of technology impracticability waivers Real-time detection of airborne Improved sensors x Sensors capable of real-time detection of Be on contaminant release during demolition surfaces and in the air of Be-contaminated buildings Removal of contaminants from Improved x Advanced methods to leach/migrate contaminants cementitious matrices decontamination from cementitious matrices technology Acceptability of treated Idaho sodium Technical basis to x Develop a risk-informed basis for disposing of bearing waste in Waste Isolation Pilot support evaluation sodium-bearing waste and other TRU wastes in Plant (WIPP) of alternative risk- WIPP informed approaches Predictability and control of hydrogen Understanding of x Predictive understanding of sludge behavior generation sludge behavior (chemical and physical) as a function of its content and environment Regulator-approved technologies for Improved subsurface (x) x (x) (x) Develop technologies acceptable to regulators characterizing soil and groundwater in characterization (with regulatory involvement) to characterize the field contaminants in the field Disposition approach for Idaho calcine Technical basis to x Develop a risk-informed comparison of disposing support evaluation of calcine, vitrified calcine, and separated and of alternative risk- vitrified calcine in an HLW repository informed approaches

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Mobile waste retrieval systems for small Improved retrieval x Mobile, flexible, smaller retrieval devices that can tanks technology be easily transported from tank to tank Processing SRS Tank 48 waste Destruction of residual x Improved understanding of TPB degradation and tetraphenylborate the effects of tank contents thereon (TPB) and other organic chemicals