Toward a Universal Radio Frequency System for Special Operations Forces: Abbreviated Version

OVERARCHING NEEDS AND RESPONSE

Two overarching needs of the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) drove this study by the Committee on Universal Radio Frequency System for Special Operations Forces: (1) reduce the quantity and weight of equipment carried on a mission and (2) add future capabilities quickly and efficiently. The committee’s overarching response concerned what SOCOM could expect to be possible over time, especially in the near term (2009-2011). The other time frames were defined as the medium term (2011-2013) and the far term (beyond 2013).

The radio frequency (RF) systems now used by special operations forces (SOF) consist of a collection of special-purpose systems that can satisfy many current mission needs. However, that collection does not possess the full range of capabilities and attributes needed by SOF today and in the future, and it is very heavy.

The committee developed approximate near-, medium-, and far-term acquisition time frames that could permit deployment of improved, universal RF systems. In the near term, existing handheld RF systems could potentially replace the manpackable systems in the inventory for many applications. In the medium term, the bandwidth and processing speeds of existing RF systems could be extended, and the addition of antennas with increased gain or active processing, preamplifiers, and downconverters could provide coverage of most or all of the frequencies of interest.

The far-term period would start at the same time as the medium-term period but last roughly twice as long. That duration, and the large number of potential future capabilities and attributes that could be enabled by the technologies identified in this report, suggest guidelines that would support robust universal RF-system solutions with markedly reduced size, weight, and power consumption. These include (1) employing a basic modular radio as a standard building block; (2) simplifying requirements wherever possible (e.g., minimizing the number of signals in space); (3) planning to insert application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology to reduce size and weight and power consumption; and (4) adopting standard smart batteries and supplemental power sources.

CURRENT STATE OF THE ART FOR RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEMS

Introduction

In accordance with the statement of task (SOT), the committee examined the state of the art for both handheld and manpackable platform-mounted radio frequency (RF) systems that are



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Toward a Universal Radio Frequency System for Special Operations Forces: Abbreviated Version OVERARCHING NEEDS AND RESPONSE Two overarching needs of the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) drove this study by the Committee on Universal Radio Frequency System for Special Operations Forces: (1) reduce the quantity and weight of equipment carried on a mission and (2) add future capabilities quickly and efficiently. The committee’s overarching response concerned what SOCOM could expect to be possible over time, especially in the near term (2009-2011). The other time frames were defined as the medium term (2011-2013) and the far term (beyond 2013). The radio frequency (RF) systems now used by special operations forces (SOF) consist of a collection of special-purpose systems that can satisfy many current mission needs. However, that collection does not possess the full range of capabilities and attributes needed by SOF today and in the future, and it is very heavy. The committee developed approximate near-, medium-, and far-term acquisition time frames that could permit deployment of improved, universal RF systems. In the near term, existing handheld RF systems could potentially replace the manpackable systems in the inventory for many applications. In the medium term, the bandwidth and processing speeds of existing RF systems could be extended, and the addition of antennas with increased gain or active processing, preamplifiers, and downconverters could provide coverage of most or all of the frequencies of interest. The far-term period would start at the same time as the medium-term period but last roughly twice as long. That duration, and the large number of potential future capabilities and attributes that could be enabled by the technologies identified in this report, suggest guidelines that would support robust universal RF-system solutions with markedly reduced size, weight, and power consumption. These include (1) employing a basic modular radio as a standard building block; (2) simplifying requirements wherever possible (e.g., minimizing the number of signals in space); (3) planning to insert application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology to reduce size and weight and power consumption; and (4) adopting standard smart batteries and supplemental power sources. CURRENT STATE OF THE ART FOR RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEMS Introduction In accordance with the statement of task (SOT), the committee examined the state of the art for both handheld and manpackable platform-mounted radio frequency (RF) systems that are 1

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2 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF available or in development by industry, the national and service laboratories, and university research establishments in the following areas: command and control; situational awareness and tracking; navigation and geolocation; hostile force tagging, tracking, and locating; signals intelligence; SOF blue force tracking; communications; and countering improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It also examined five areas not specifically called out in the project scope that it believes are critical support functions without which the goals of a universal radio frequency system (URFS) cannot be attained—namely, information assurance, which includes TRANSEC/COMSEC, antitamper and low probability of intercept/low probability of detection (LPI/LPD); size, weight, and power (SWaP); usability; interoperability; and, sustainability. For each area, the committee considers the systems that are fielded by SOF (roughly TRL-7 and higher), the systems available (TRL-5 and greater) or fielded by other parts of the Department of Defense (DOD), and the systems under development as an emerging technology (TRL-4 and below). For the sake of brevity, the committee has not attempted to exhaustively cover every product, system, or program that falls into each category; the systems covered are representative of the current state of the art in each of the three technology time frames. Command and Control, Including Situational Awareness and SOF Blue Force Tracking While the statement of task separates command and control (C2) from situational awareness and tracking and blue force tracking, in this chapter these areas are merged, because proper C2 implies situational awareness where the own-force aspect is obtained via SOF blue force tracking. Information on enemy forces needed for situational awareness is covered in the sections on hostile force tagging, tracking, and location and on signals intelligence. Fielded Systems Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below, for Blue Force Tracking1 The Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) system forms the principal digital command and control system for the Army at brigade level and below. All FBCB2 systems are interconnected through a communications infrastructure called the Tactical Internet to exchange situational awareness data and conduct C2. FBCB2 is interoperable with the maneuver control system, the All Source Analysis System, the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System, the Air and Missile Defense Work Station, and the Combat Service Support Control System. Blue force tracking employs L-band satellite communication links that have proved to be reliable over long distances and in mountainous terrain. Georeference data displayed includes enemy positions, friendly positions, and hazards and obstacles. The prime contactor for FBCB2 is Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (Dominguez Hill, California). Command Post of the Future2 The Command Post of the Future (CPOF) is an executive-level decision support system providing situational awareness and collaborative tools for tactical decision making, planning, rehearsal, and execution management from corps to battalion level. CPOF supports visualization, information analysis, and collaboration in a single, integrated environment. CPOF operators interactively collaborate, sharing thoughts, workspace, and plans to analyze information and to evaluate courses of action with real-time feedback for an immediate and comprehensive view of 1 For more information on FBCB2, see http://peoc3t.monmouth.army.mil/fbcb2/about.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 2 For more information on CPOF, see http://peoc3t.monmouth.army.mil/battlecommand/bc_CPOF.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 3 the battlefield. CPOF is designed to enable deep cohesion-of-thought processes between the commander and his staff. Users are able to selectively and dynamically generate and transmit their evolving analysis, plans, and execution. General Dynamics is the prime contractor for CPOF. Joint Tactical Common Operational Picture Workstation3 Joint Tactical Common Operational Picture (COP) Workstation (JTCW), formally known as the command and control personal computer (C2PC), is an integrated build of software applications including a Windows-based operating system (OS) designed to facilitate military C2 functions by improving situational awareness and enhancing the commander’s operational and tactical decision-making capability. JTCW components consist of the JTCW Client and Gateway as the core software application, Marine Corps and Joint third-party application extension, government off-the-shelf and commercial off-the-shelf applications, and the Microsoft Windows OS. The JTCW is the primary point of entry for the common tactical picture, in which users are able to view map data, manage and track data, develop and distribute overlays and graphics, exchange message traffic, plan and distribute route information, and conduct C2 planning during real-time operations. The C2PC prime contactor is Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (San Diego, California). FalconView FalconView is a mapping system created by the Georgia Tech Research Institute4 for the Windows5 family of operating systems. It displays various types of maps and geographically referenced overlays. Many types of maps are supported, but the primary ones of interest to most users are aeronautical charts, satellite images, and elevation maps. FalconView also supports a large number of overlay types that can be displayed over any map background. The current overlay set is targeted at military mission planning users and is oriented to aviators and aviation support personnel. FalconView is an integral part of the portable flight planning software.6 This software suite includes FalconView, combat flight planning software, combat weapon delivery software, Combat Air Drop Planning Software, and several other software packages built by various software contractors. DARPA TIGR System Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR) is a multimedia reporting system for soldiers at the patrol level, allowing users to collect and share information to improve situational awareness and to facilitate collaboration and information analysis among junior officers. With its geospatial user interface, TIGR is particularly suited to counterinsurgency operations and enables collection and dissemination of fine-grained intelligence on people, places, and insurgent activity. Focused on users at the company level and below, TIGR complements existing reporting systems that focus on the needs of users at the battalion or brigade level and above. TIGR’s graphical, map- 3 For more information on C2PC, also known as JTCW, see http://hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/p&r/Concepts/2005/PDF/Ch3PDFs/CP05%20Ch3P1%20CEP%20pg%20143_Co mmand%20and%20Control%20Personal%20Computer.pdf. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 4 For more information on the Georgia Tech Research Institute, see http://www.gtri.gatech.edu/. Last accessed September 29, 2008 5 For more information on Microsoft Windows, see http://www.microsoft.com/Windows/default.aspx. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 6 For more information on PFPS, visit http://www.tybrin.com/DisplayArticle.aspx?tblName=tblServices&articleID=37. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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4 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF referenced user interface is highly intuitive and allows multimedia data such as voice recordings, digital photos, and GPS tracks to be easily collected and searched. The system also uses a state- of-the-art data distribution architecture to minimize load on the tactical networks while allowing digital imagery and other multimedia data to be rapidly exchanged. TIGR was developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under an extremely aggressive schedule. The system was first introduced to users during the predeployment training exercise at Fort Hood in the spring of 2006. The system is currently in experimental use in Iraq.7 Available DARPA Active Templates The DARPA Active Templates program was established to develop a scalable, simple, distributed software infrastructure for mission planning and execution, in essence a spreadsheet for planning, information monitoring, and execution replanning. This effort addressed the concept of spreadsheets for planning by developing a suite of forms-based planning tools. The objective was to enable users to create and modify forms with sharable information elements to support real-time collaboration, and a core technology was implemented to facilitate collaborative form development. The resulting technology was then used as a foundation for a number of demonstration applications, including weather report visualization, command logs, and, more important, a general form-building application called CommandLink. CommandLink provides a simple, intuitive tool for users to support planning with unique features that enable real-time collaboration, reusability of information elements, and connectivity to external information sources.8 Emerging Technology Unified Battle Command There is ongoing discussion among the program offices of the current FBCB2 and Future Combat Systems, U.S. Army C2 systems, and the current U.S. Marine Corps C2 system about merging these systems at some point in the future into a unified battle command system. The data and timeline for such a merger are still to be determined, but the committee includes them because they will be relevant to a future URFS. DARPA Deep Green Deep Green is a next-generation, commander-centered battle command and decision support technology that interleaves anticipatory planning with adaptive execution to help the commander think ahead, identify when a plan is going awry, and prepare options before they are needed. The Deep Green concept is an innovative approach to using simulation to support ongoing military operations while they are being conducted. By using information acquired from the ongoing operation rather than assumptions made during the planning phase, commanders and their staffs can make more informed choices. The basic system architecture comprises the Commander’s Associate (with three subcomponents: the Sketch to Plan, Automated Options Generation, and the Sketch to Decide), Blitzkrieg, and Crystal Ball, as shown in Figure 1. 7 For more information on TIGR, visit http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/assist/assist_tigr.asp. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 8 For more information on CommandLink, visit http://www.stormingmedia.us/97/9726/A972634.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 5 FIGURE 1 Basic system architecture for DARPA Deep Green. SOURCE: DARPA. Navigation and GeoLocation Navigation and geolocation in the context of this report are the ability to know one’s own position using external (e.g., GPS) or organic (e.g., inertial navigation system (INS)) methods. Fielded Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver The precision lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR) is a handheld, single-frequency military GPS receiver that incorporates the Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) to access the encrypted P(Y) code GPS signal. More than 165,000 PLGRs were procured worldwide from the time the system was first introduced, in January 1994, through 2004. Defense Advanced GPS Receiver The defense advanced GPS receiver (DAGR) is used by the DOD and select foreign military services. It is a military-grade, dual-frequency receiver that incorporates SAASM. Manufactured by Rockwell Collins, the DAGR entered production in March 2004, with the 40,000th unit delivered in September 2005. It was estimated by Defense Industry Daily that by the end of 2006 the U.S. Army and various allies around the world had ordered almost 125,000 units.9 DAGR features include: • Two-frequency (L1/L2) operation provides calibration of the ionosphere. Single- frequency operation has a nominal horizontal location accuracy of 10.2 m compared to dual-frequency operation, which offers 6.6 m nominal accuracy. Neither quoted accuracy has any significant geometrical dilution of precision. 9 For more information, visit “$82.7M more for DAGR GPS receivers” at http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/827m-more-for-dagr-gps-receivers-02829/#more. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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6 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF • SAASM uses the secure (encrypted) P(Y) code as well as the coarse/acquisition code (C/A) used by commercial receivers. Besides having improved antijam processing gain (approximately 6 dB more than the C/A receiver), the secure code cannot be spoofed, as can the C/A receiver because of its known and repeated code. SAASM receivers can also maintain high location accuracy when selective availability (SA) is in operation; SA was turned off in May 2000 and most likely will not be turned on again. • DAGR can use local area differential GPS or wide-area GPS enhancement (WAGE). WAGE is a method to increase the horizontal accuracy of the GPS encrypted P(Y) code by adding range correction data to the satellite broadcast navigation message. The horizontal accuracy using WAGE is approximately 5 m. Commercial GPS Commercial GPS receivers can only use the C/A code, which is transmitted on a single frequency. Selective availability had limited the location accuracy of C/A receivers, but it is no longer active. The location accuracy in benign environments is about the same as that of a single- frequency SAASM receiver. Current commercial GPS receivers are highly integrated and inexpensive in large part because they do not require SAASM. They are easily integrated into various prices of equipment such as handheld radios, handheld navigation systems, and cell phones. Differential GPS is widely available; there are local systems as well as a worldwide system, similar to the WAGE, that provides local corrections for many sources of location error. John Deere claims accuracies of 10 cm for controlling farming equipment and for crop mapping.10 Any performance figures from the commercial manufacturers of GPS should be weighted very highly by the caveat that they are not designed to operate in the unfriendly environments in which SOF operate. Available SAASM Chip Sets The critical component of a SAASM chip set is the key data processor (KDP). Sandia National Laboratories, the KDP developer for the government, has provided several generations of government-furnished equipment (GFE), which have evolved from a five-chip set (KDP-I) to a three-chip set (KDP-II) to a single chip (KDP-III, KDP-IV) that can be instantiated into a single system-on-a-chip SAASM GPS receiver. The KDP-II’s current use dates from the mid-1990s and consumes considerable power. All currently fielded SAASM GPS receivers are constructed as multichip modules and include the SAASM developer receiver chips and the GFE KDP-II chips within the multichip module.11 There are several advantages to creating a fully integrated, single monolithic KDP. Some of those benefits include providing SAASM developers with the ability to create a fully integrated system-on-a-chip single-chip SAASM receiver that provides increased security (no exposed classified interconnects) and reduces costs (elimination of antitamper coating and complex multichip module fabrication), reduces size and weight, and uses an industry-standard trusted integrated circuit fabrication process. First under Navy funding and subsequently under Army funding, one of the SAASM developers began an effort during 2005 to produce the first fully integrated SAASM GPS. In this effort, Sandia was to produce the KDP-III as an IP core that could be integrated at a Trusted Foundry with the company’s receiver and processor cores. This development is in 130-nm technology and can be expected to produce 10 For more information on John Deere farming equipment, visit http://www.progressiveengineer.com/pewebbackissues2005/PEWeb%2060%20Mar05-2/Deere.htm. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 11 For more information on SAASM, see SAASM System Specification SAASM-ss_gps-001a.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 7 equipment during 2009. Subsequently, a second SAASM developer has begun a development at a Trusted Foundry in 90-nm technology, with Sandia supplying the KDP-IV. This effort should produce equipment during 2010. The applications targeted for this high level of integration are guidance for artillery shells and missiles, land mines, unattended ground sensors, and handheld radios. M-Code GPS M-code receivers will have all SAASM capabilities—that is, correction for situational awareness and processing of the P(Y) and C/A codes. All M-code receivers will be fully integrated simply because that is the emerging state of the art of SAASM GPS receivers. The most significant changes effected for M-code equipment are these: (1) M-code satellites will provide a factor of 100 (20-dB) higher transmit power from the satellite and (2) the M-code signal in space is a 5 Mchip per second code rate, wherein each chip waveform is Manchester encoded. This produces a null in the M-code signal spectrum at center frequency, enabling jamming of the C/A code to deny its use to unfriendly forces. The manufacturers of M-code equipment will handle security rather than the government supplying hardware and keying receivers. At present, it appears that launch of the initial M-code satellites has been delayed, and it is not clear when manufacturers will introduce M-code receivers. Emerging Technology DARPA Robust Surface Navigation12 The DARPA robust surface navigation (RSN) program will provide DOD with the ability to geolocate and navigate effectively when GPS is unavailable due to hostile action (e.g., jamming) or blockage by structures and foliage. The RSN program will develop the procedures and technologies for geolocation of stationary assets and navigation of mobile platforms by exploiting signals of opportunity and/or specialized signals from satellite, airborne, and terrestrial assets. The use of widely available, powerful, and economically important (and thus dependable) signals of opportunity will provide a robust non-GPS capability. Signals of opportunity can also be augmented when necessary by purpose-deployed, signal-emitting beacons. RSN will use the greater strength and diversity of these opportunistic and intentional signals to provide coverage when GPS is denied due to lack of penetration, when severe multipath is a problem, or when GPS is jammed or denied globally. ArgonST (Fairfax, Virginia) is the prime contractor. DARPA Precision Inertial Navigation Program13 Military navigation systems use updates from GPS satellites to enhance the INS’s knowledge of their current position. However, GPS transmission is vulnerable to jamming, and signal reception is difficult or impossible in certain geographic conditions (underwater, in urban or natural canyons, underground, etc.). Without GPS updates, INS positional accuracy drifts with time at a few miles per hour (referred to as the drift rate of the navigation system). The precision inertial navigation systems (PINS) program seeks to use ultracold atom interferometers as an alternative to GPS position updates. Advances in atomic physics over the past two decades have allowed scientists exquisite control over the external quantum states of atoms, including the deliberate production of matter waves from ultracold atoms. This has allowed the development of 12 For more information on DARPA’s RSN, see http://www.darpa.mil/sto/space/rsn.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 13 For more information on DARPA’s PINS, see http://www.darpa.mil/dso/thrusts/physci/newphys/pins/index.htm. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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8 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF matter-wave interferometry techniques, including high-precision atomic accelerometers and gyroscopes, to measure forces acting on matter. An INS that used this technology would have unprecedented drift rates; however, many scientific and technical challenges remain. The vision is that PINS will operate with drift rates of less than 5 m/h hour and encompass a volume of less than 1 m³. As this is entirely an inertial system, it will require no transmissions to or by the platform and will serve as a jam-proof, nonemanating INS with near-GPS accuracies for future military systems. Deeply Integrated Guidance and Navigation Unit14 The goal of the deeply integrated guidance and navigation unit (DIGNU) program is the design, development, and implementation of automated manufacturing technologies for low-cost, high-accuracy, high-g, survivable microelectromechanical systems inertial measurement units (IMUs). ManTech funding will establish automated manufacturing technologies that will allow production of IMUs that meet 90 percent of DOD munitions, missiles, and—potentially— unmanned air system (UAS) needs. Phases 1 and 2 are complete, with both the IMU and DIGNU completing the government verification test. Phase 3 IMU was expected to have entered design verification testing in the first quarter of 2008. Boeing iGPS System Engineers from Boeing have invented and received patents (Cohen et al., 2007, 2005) on a series of techniques to assist GPS operation via integration with the existing Iridium low-earth orbit satellite system.15 Boeing recently received a 3-year, $153.5 million cost-plus-fixed-fee contract from the Naval Research Laboratory to continue development of this system. The program is developing techniques that enable faster acquisition (time to first fix (TTFF)) of GPS satellite signals in adverse operating environments, including those with RF interference or urban settings. The high-integrity GPS team includes Boeing Advanced Systems and Phantom Works, Iridium LLC, Rockwell Collins, Coherent Navigation, and experts from academia. Hostile Force Tagging, Tracking, and Locating Systems for hostile force tagging, tracking, and location (TTL) are covered in detail by a separate NRC study.16 Any future URFS will need to be able to interrogate and exfiltrate data and information from such systems and thus should be designed with compatible operating frequency, bandwidth, data rate, and range. Fielded ROVER As seen in Figure 2, the remote observable video-enhanced receiver (ROVER) III, manufactured by L-3 Communications, Communication Systems-West, is a portable receive-only terminal that displays sensor data from multiple airborne platforms. It is interoperable with Ku- band digital (14.4-15.35 GHz), C-band digital (5.25-5.85 GHz), C-band analog (4.40-5.85 GHz), 14 For more information on DIGNU, see http://www.armymantech.com/pg12.pdf. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 15 For more information, see http://www.insidegnss.com/node/745. 16 For more information on the NRC report Sensing and Supporting Communications Capabilities for Special Operations Forces: Abbreviated Version, see http://www8.nationalacademies.org/cp/projectview.aspx?key=48916. Last accessed September 8, 2009.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 9 L-band analog (1.71-1.85 GHz), Predator, Shadow, Dragon Eye, Litening Pod, and other joint and coalition assets. The receiver weighs 10.25 lb and measures 3.8 in. x 5.5 in. x 15.5 in. (with battery). A single BA 5590 battery provides 10-12 hours of operation. FIGURE 2 ROVER III. SOURCE: L-3 Communications (http://www.l-3com.com/products- services/docoutput.aspx?id=1259). As seen in Figure 3, the ROVER 5 handheld, also manufactured by L-3 Communications, Communication Systems-West, is a portable transceiver device that provides sensor-to-shooter connectivity with the highest levels of collaboration. It is interoperable with Ku-band (14.4-15.35 GHz, 1.0 MHz steps), C-band (4.40-4.950 GHz, 1.0 MHz steps, and 5.25-5.85 GHz, 1.0 MHz steps), S-band (2.2-2.5 GHz, 0.5 MHz steps), L-band (1.71-1.85 GHz, 0.5 MHz steps), and UHF (400-470 MHz) among others. The receiver weighs 3.5 lb and measures 9.5 x 5.6 x 2.25 in. (with antenna). A lithium-polymer battery provides 2.5-3 hours of operation. FIGURE 3 ROVER 5 handheld. SOURCE: L-3 Communications (http://www.l- 3com.com/products-services/docoutput.aspx?id=1257). Emerging Technology DARPA Digital RF Tags The DARPA digital RF tags (DRaFT) program, which ended in 2004, developed passive and active S- and X-band RF tags that are interrogated by existing airborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radars such that location information is embedded in the radar return to provide information on the position of tagged vehicles. While primarily designed for preventing incidents of fratricide between close air support and friendly ground vehicles, DRaFT technology could also be used for hostile force TTL.

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10 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF DARPA Dynamic Optical Tags The dynamic optical tags program seeks to create new tagging, tracking, and location capabilities for U.S. forces. This program will develop optical tagging and interrogation technologies for small, environmentally robust, retro-reflector-based tags that can be read by both handheld and airborne sensors at significant distances. These tags can be used for unique, non-RF identification of items of interest or for monitoring tactical areas for disturbance by personnel and vehicles. The identification tags also will be capable of providing persistent two-way communications for both tactical and logistical operations.17 Signals Intelligence Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is the capability to detect, identify, and geolocate enemy RF signals. Fielded AN/PRD-13v2 As seen in Figure 4, the AN/PRD-13v2, manufactured by L-3 Communications, Linkabit, is a manportable SIGINT system incorporating sophisticated RF intercept and direction finding processing capabilities into a low-power, lightweight, ruggedized, reliable system that satisfies the most demanding tactical applications and mission requirements. The system has a frequency range of 2-2000 MHz operating in the HF, VHF, and UHF bands. The transmitter has a power output of 9.5 W and weighs 43 lb, including an MB-5700 NiCd battery and all field accessories. FIGURE 4 AN/PRD-13v2. SOURCE: L-3 Communications. Available DRT13013C The DRT1301C, manufactured by Digital Receiver Technology, Inc., is a portable, ruggedized radio designed for operations in tactical and/or harsh environments. It provides a miniature yet powerful surveillance capability. The radio has a frequency range of 20-3000 MHz and operates against a variety of analog and digital wireless standards. The transmitter has a 17 http://www.darpa.mil/STO/smallunitops/dots.html.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 11 power output range of <1 W (standby) to 75 W (48 channels, 3 tuners); it weighs 10.5 lb and measures 3 in. (H) by 8.5 in. (W) by 11.2 in. (D).18 DRT13013C+ The DRT1301C+, manufactured by Digital Receiver Technology, Inc., is a portable, ruggedized manpackable radio offering the same capabilities as the DRT1401C but also has environmentally protected fans for additional cooling capability, permitting in-the-rucksack operation. The radio has a frequency range of 20-3000 MHz and operates against a variety of analog and digital wireless standards. The transmitter has a power output range of <1 W (standby) to 78 W (48 channels, 3 tuners); it weighs 12 lb and measures 3 in. (H) by 7.9 in. (W) by 13.32 in. (D). Joint Threat Warning System Ground SIGINT Kit (PRD-14) The Joint Threat Warning System (JTWS) ground SIGINT kit (PRD-14) is a manpackable SIGINT system developed for SOCOM by the SPAWAR Systems Center at San Diego. The JTWS, which completed Milestone C testing in 2004, consists of multiple receivers, tuners, and signal processing units and an operator station. It weighs ~45 lb (not including batteries) and consumes ~100 W of power. Emerging Technology DARPA Wolf Pack19 The DARPA WolfPack system, developed by BAE Systems, Inc. (Nashua, New Hampshire), is a complete end-to-end system consisting of remote sensors, advanced detection, tracking, and jamming algorithms, and a controller workstation capable of integration into a larger C4I system. The system emphasizes an air-deployable, ground-based, close-proximity, distributed, networked architecture to obtain RF spectrum dominance. The WolfPack program is developing new electronic warfare technologies that can hold enemy emitters (communications and radar) at risk throughout the tactical battle space while avoiding disruption of friendly military and protected commercial radio communications. The WolfPack system covers 30 MHz to 20 GHz in the RF spectrum. DARPA BOSS20 The goal of the DARPA brood of spectrum supremacy (BOSS) program is to provide a RF- spectrum analogue to night vision capabilities for the tactical warfighter, with a particular focus on RF-rich urban operations. The program is intended to apply collaborative processing capabilities for software-defined radios to specific military applications. BOSS Phase I activities will be focused on modeling and simulation, resulting in hardware-independent, executable specifications of waveforms in a MATLAB format. Phase II is focused on implementing a prototype demonstration capability for an RF platform, with the implementation accompanied by hardware-independent, executable specifications of the waveforms. Phase III will focus on 18 All dimensions are given in inches, and height, width, and depth are expressed as H, W, and D. 19 For more information on DARPA’s WolfPack program, see http://www.darpa.mil/STO/strategic/wolfpack.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008. 20 For more information on DARPA’s BOSS program see http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/Programs/boss/boss.asp. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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14 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF FIGURE 8 AN/PRC-148. SOURCE: Thales Communications, Inc. (http://www.thalescommunications.com). PRC-152 As seen in Figure 9, the FALCON III AN/PRC-152, manufactured by Harris Corporation, is a single-channel, multiband handheld radio with a frequency range of 30-512 MHz and adjustable transmit output power from 250 mW to 5 W. The AN/PRC-152 weighs 2.6 lb and has dimensions of 2.9 in. (W) by 9.6 in. (H) by 2.5 in. (D) (with battery). Interoperability includes SINCGARS, HAVEQUICK II, VHF/UHF AM and FM, and MIL- STD-188-181B. As with the AN/PRC-148, the AN/PRC-152 is also a JTRS-approved SCA radio under the CISCHR contract with the JTRS JPEO. FIGURE 9 FALCON III AN/PRC-152. SOURCE: Harris Corporation. PRC-343 As seen in Figure 10, the Selex PRC-343, also known as the Personal Role Radio (PRR), uses 2.4-GHz spread-spectrum technology to provide push-to-talk (PTT) voice functionality. Some key features of the PRR are 50 mW of transmit power using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) modulation, a typical operating range of 500 m in open terrain, and through three floors of a building or through five houses in urban environments. Sixteen channels are available directly to the user; it operates on two AA batteries for more than 24 hr (1:7:16

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 15 TX/RX/standby) and is independent of any infrastructure. The PRR was originally developed for use with the British Army as the first phase of the Bowman project.21 FIGURE 10 Selex PRC-343. SOURCE: Selex. Iridium As seen in Figure 11, the 9505A, manufactured by Motorola, is a small, lightweight satellite phone resistant to water, dust, shock, and environmental variables and is ideal for remote areas and rugged conditions. The phone offers up to 30 hours of standby time and 3.2 hours of talk time. It weighs only 13.2 oz and has dimensions of 6.2 in. (H) by 2.4 in. (W) by 2.3 in. (D). Iridium runs on a constellation of LEO satellites operated by Boeing. Iridium systems with the CONDOR appliqué have the ability to do Type 1 voice encryption. FIGURE 11 Iridium 9505A satellite phone. SOURCE: Iridium. PRC-112 The AN/PRC-112 survival radio, manufactured by General Dynamics, provides search and rescue (SAR) personnel with the ability to perform combat search and rescue (CSAR) missions to save downed aircrew. The PRC-112 is used extensively for personnel recovery as well as for various SOF applications. The PRC-112 is a software-defined radio (SDR) capable of running the following waveforms: AM voice, DME, LOS HOOK data, over-the-horizon (OTH) UHF SATCOM data, 406 SARSAT, 121.5 and 243 MHz swept-tone beacon and other special waveforms. It has an output power of 1-5 W (UHF) and 0.1 W (VHF). It weighs 28 oz (with battery) and measures 7.69 in. (H) by 3 in. (W) by 1.5 in. (D). 21 For more information on PRC-343, see http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Military- Communications/H4855-AN-PRC-343-Personal-Role-Radio-PRR-United-Kingdom.html. Last accessed December 18, 2008.

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16 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF Available The Falcon III AN/PRC-117G(V)1(C) As seen in Figure 12, the Falcon III AN/PRC-117G(V)1(C) is manpackable. Manufactured by Harris Corporation, it is a tactical radio with a frequency range of 30 MHz to 2 GHz and has adjustable transmit output power of 10 W VHF and 20 W UHF. The AN/PRC-117 weighs 10.9 lb, has dimensions of 7.4 in. (W) by 3.7 in. (H) by 13.5 in. (D) (with battery), and is submersible to 1 m. Waveforms include SINCGARS, HAVEQUICK II, VHF/UHF AM and FM, high- performance waveform, MIL-STD-188-181B SATCOM, and the Harris Adaptive Networking Wideband Waveform (ANW2). FIGURE 12 Falcon III AN/PRC-117G(V)1(C) is manpackable. SOURCE: Harris Corporation. SINCGARS RT-1523 As seen in Figure 13, the SINCGARS RT-1523, manufactured by ITT Industries, is designed to provide network data services in both mounted and dismounted configurations to allow access to the Tactical Internet. The radio has a frequency range of 30-88 MHz with transmitting power options of 1 mW, 100 mW, and 5 W dismounted and 50 W mounted RF power amplifier (RFPA). With embedded battery, the radio weighs 7.7 lb; dimensions are 3.4 in. (H) by 5.3 in. (W) by 10.15 in. (D). FIGURE 13 SINCGARS RT-1523. SOURCE: ITT Industries. SINCGARS SIP/RT-1523E As seen in Figure 14, the SINCGARS SIP (ASIP), manufactured by ITT Industries, is the primary combat net radio for the U.S. Army, designated primarily for voice C2 for infantry, armor, and artillery units. The radio incorporates all the features of previous radio systems and enhancements to reduce its weight and size for the dismounted soldier and optimize its performance in the Tactical Internet. This is mainly due to the internal redesign of the radio and to taking advantage of software-based digital signal processing architecture. It has a frequency range of 30-88 MHz VHF-FM; the transmitter has a nominal power output of 4-5 W. With battery, handset, and antenna, the total manpack weight is less than 9 lb. Dimensions are 3.4 in.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 17 (H) by 5.3 in. (W) by 10.15 in. (D). It has integrated COMSEC and data rate adapter with embedded internet controller and SAASM GPS options. FIGURE 14 SINCGARS SIP (ASIP). SOURCE: ITT Industries. CSEL (AN/PRQ-7) The combat survivor evader locator (CSEL) is the DOD Program of Record for Joint Search and Rescue and is in full production by prime contractor Boeing. This fully qualified, next- generation survival radio system comprises OTH relays, ground, and user equipment segments for the joint services. CSEL minimizes the search aspect of a rescue mission by providing recovery forces with precise geopositioning information and secure OTH and LOS two-way data communications capabilities. The CSEL is a multifunctional handheld radio that gives the warfighter the ability to securely communicate position and text messages through the CSEL UHF SATCOM network. The CSEL radio has a programmable and upgradable software, a SAASM-based GPS receiver for precise navigation, and receives OTH waypoints and text messages. All OTH transmissions are acknowledged and it has National Security Agency (NSA)- certified encryption and decryption of OTH and LOS messages. EPLRS MicroLight As seen in Figure 15, the EPLRS MicroLight-DH500, manufactured by Raytheon, is a fully networked radio for RF-challenged environments. It integrates voice, data, and video transmission into a single low-profile radio. The MicroLight has a frequency range of 225-2000 MHz, a power output of 100 mW to 4 W, and a weight of 27 oz. The dimensions are 7.65 in. (H) by 2.6 in. (W) by 1.6 in. (D) (including battery). MicroLight operates in the 420-450 UHF band utilizing waveforms for interoperability with various data networks, including JTRS, EPLRS UAF, and SRW as well as the Air Force’s SADL. FIGURE 15 EPLRS MicroLight-DH500. SOURCE: Raytheon Company.

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18 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF Soldier Radio As seen in Figure 16, the Soldier Radio, manufactured by ITT Industries, is an SDR designed for PTT voice and data communications. Soldier Radio supports narrowband and wideband waveforms with a frequency range of 30-88 MHz (VHF), 225-970 MHz (UHF), and 1650-1850 MHz (L-band). Programmable transmit power is 1 mW to 5 W in ~6 dB steps. Weight is less than 2.2 lb; dimensions are 5.99 in. (H) by 3.75 in. (W) by 1.9 in. (D). FIGURE 16 Soldier Radio. SOURCE: ITT Industries. SpearNet Team Member Radio As seen in Figure S-17, the SpearNet Team Member Radio, manufactured by ITT Industries, is optimized for digital, network-centric communication, providing a seamless, self-healing ad hoc networking and multihop routing capability. Standard interfaces include Ethernet, USB, RS- 232, and Bluetooth, and it has embedded GPS. It has a 1.2 GHz operating band with transmit power up to 26 dbm. The radio weighs 1.5 lb and has dimensions of 7.72 in. (H) by 2.99 in. (W) by 1.20-1.87 in. (D). FIGURE 17 SpearNet Team Member Radio. SOURCE: ITT Industries. Wearable Soldier Radio Terminal As seen in Figure 18, the Wearable Soldier Radio Terminal (WSRT), manufactured by ITT Industries, provides communication capability for dismounted soldiers, linking soldiers to each

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 19 other and bridging the dismounted gap. WSRT is an SDR capable of supporting both narrowband and wideband waveforms with Type II COMSEC and interfaces with Ethernet, USB, and headset. Weighing only 1.2 lb, the system operates in the UHF band with transmit power up to 5 W. FIGURE 18 Wearable Soldier Radio Terminal. SOURCE: ITT Industries. Cobham Eagle As seen in Figure 19, the Cobham Eagle is a short-range infantry assault radio designed and developed by Cobham Defense Communications to provide a wireless extension for the ROVIS, AN/VIC-3, and LV2 intercom systems. The equipment is a fourth-generation, full-duplex networked radio specifically designed to provide the soldier with a low-cost solution for voice and data requirements in the urban and rural environments of the modern battlefield. Eagle is designed to enhance C2 at the section and squad levels. In comparison to earlier first-generation simplex systems, Eagle allows access for up to six full-duplex users simultaneously, utilizing advanced VOX to ease the burden of communications under stress and avoid jamming the system in situations when all users are most likely to want access to the network at the same time. In addition to the voice functions of Eagle, simultaneous transmit and reception of data are also incorporated into the design of the radio, allowing up to 128 kbps of data while maintaining two full-duplex channels for audio plus a permanent emergency override capability. Eagle provides extended area and range coverage via automatic network extension. Eagle is an SDR operating in the license-free, 2.4-GHz ISM band. The use of a DSSS frequency-hopping waveform provides LPI and LPD and the ability to coexist with other networks operating in the same band without degradation of voice and data communications capabilities. FIGURE 19 Cobham Eagle. SOURCE: http://www.cobhamdes.com/img/content/products-eagle- black-pouch.jpg.

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20 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF Emerging Technology JTRS HMS As seen in Figure 20, the JTRS HMS manpackable radio is a two-channel SDR capable of network-centric connectivity and legacy interoperability, supporting advanced and current-force waveforms. The JTRS HMS has a frequency range of 2 MHz to 2.5 GHz and a maximum power output of 20 W. Weight is 14.5 lb (with battery), size is 400 cu. in., and it has fully programmable COMSEC and TRANSEC interoperability. Waveforms include SRW, MUOS, SINCGARS, EPLRS, SATCOM, and HF SSB w/ALE. General Dynamics is the prime contractor. FIGURE 20 General Dynamics JTRS HMS Manpack. SOURCE: General Dynamics (http://www.gdc4s.com/jtrshms). DARPA Wireless Network after Next The Wireless Network after Next (WNaN) program goal is to develop and demonstrate technologies and system concepts enabling densely deployed networks in which distributed and adaptive network operations compensate for the limitations of the physical layer of the low-cost wireless nodes that comprise these networks. WNaN networks will manage node configurations and the topology of the network to reduce the demands on the physical and link layers of the nodes. The technology created by the WNaN effort will provide reliable and widely available battlefield communications at low system cost ($500 per unit in lots of 100,000). The WNaN program will develop a prototype handheld wireless node that can be used to form high-density ad hoc networks and gateways to the global information grid. It will develop robust networking architecture(s) that will exploit high-density node configurations from related DARPA programs. This program will culminate in a large-scale network demonstration using inexpensive multichannel nodes. Cobham (formerly M/A Com) is the prime contractor for the radio hardware, and BBN Technologies, Inc., is the prime contractor for the network software.22 QNT The Quint Networking Technology (QNT) is a modular network data link program focused on providing a multiband modular capability to close the seams between five nodes: aircraft, unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), weapons, tactical UASs, and dismounted ground forces. The specific intended QNT hardware users are weapons, air control forces on the ground (dismounted), and tactical UASs. The desired QNT data link functional capability includes the ability to transmit target coordinates to a weapon in flight from either an aircraft or a dismounted ground unit; to disseminate sensor data; to alter the missions of dismounted ground units, unmanned airborne platforms, and weapons; to allow autonomous bomb impact assessment or 22 For more information on WNaN, visit http://www.darpa.mil/sto/strategic/wireless.html.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 21 bomb hit indications; and to enable offboard sensor data dissemination and control supporting cooperative engagement. Rockwell Collins is the prime contractor for QNT.23 Commercial There are a plethora of commercial communications systems (Table 1) that could be used by SOF in certain circumstances as permitted by the CONOPS and depending on security, covertness, and the availability of infrastructure. The committee covers only the Inmarsat BGAN system currently used by SOF but provides URLs for commercial commodity communications systems in the table. TABLE 1 Commercial Communications Systems Information Available at Communications System http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/___ Cellular GSM voice and data GSM Cellular CDMA voice and data CDMA 802.11 (WiFi) derivatives WiFi 802.16 (WiMax) derivatives WiMax 802.15.4 (ZigBee) Zigbee BlueTooth Bluetooth APCO-25 APCO-25 TETRA TETRA Inmarsat Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) Inmarsat BGAN offers data rates of up to hundreds of kilobits per second in a manpackable (~2 kg) satellite terminal supporting voice and data services and is available globally with the exception of the extreme polar regions. Inmarsat BGAN is used by, for example, commercial news-gathering services, executives on private jets, oil and gas companies, and others that need moderate-data-rate Internet connectivity in austere environments without telecommunications infrastructure. SYNOPSIS OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS SOCOM should expeditiously acquire multifunctional handheld and, if necessary, manpackable systems to replace multiple, separate single-function systems. Recognizing that power and energy needs are mission-critical, SOCOM’s acquisition process should give the power-energy issue a very high priority. It should demand greater efficiencies by aggressively pursuing energy conservation and management in device design and by exploiting emerging battery and power-source technologies. The committee’s examination of the current state of the art revealed a plethora of radio equipment: legacy radios intermingled with newer RF systems and some systems nearly identical in function. After reviewing a wide range of research and technology development efforts to assess what capabilities could be provided in the years ahead, the committee found that existing and emerging technologies could support many capabilities and attributes relevant to future universal RF systems. Accordingly, SOCOM should establish a structured program for a universal RF system to address far-term research and technology issues. That program should incorporate relevant efforts of the research and technology development community at large. 23 For more information on QNT, visit http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/qnt/qnt.asp.

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22 TOWARD A UNIVERSAL RADIO FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR SOF Looking to deployability, SOCOM should evaluate (1) existing software-defined radios in terms of near-term upgrades, long-term growth, and affordability and (2) the costs and benefits of upgrading existing platform(s). Additionally, SOCOM should conduct an expeditious, rough- order-of-magnitude analysis of cost as well as the operational and SWaP benefits of eliminating the future procurement of some manpackable systems in favor of handheld-only systems. SOCOM should adopt a modular approach. The long-term goal should be incorporation of ASIC system-on-a-chip (SoC) processors for high-speed signal processing (a goal that will require strong technical oversight), and SOCOM should look to a universal ASIC chip capable of synthesizing most, if not all, likely waveforms. With respect to power supplies, SOCOM should leverage Army developments in advanced lithium batteries, lithium–rechargeable zinc/air hybrids, energy recovery from partially discharged batteries, and low-observable, lightweight, flexible photovoltaic systems for battery charging. For the far term, SOCOM should develop mature hybrid power systems, standard batteries with common interfaces, and smart battery chargers. The following section contains publicly releasable findings and recommendations. The full findings and recommendations are provided in a separate full report. SELECTED FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Finding 2-1. Many of the capabilities needed by SOF are unique and much more demanding than those of conventional forces, particularly with respect to attributes related to covert operations. Security; size, weight, and power; frequency agility; and the incorporation of multipurpose functionality are essential to effective use by small teams operating in uncontrolled and hostile areas. Recommendation 2-1. SOCOM should (1) expeditiously acquire multifunctional handheld and, if necessary, manpackable systems to replace the multiple separate single-function systems now carried and (2) aggressively develop further consolidated multifunctional platforms with currently available technology. Finding 2-2. Greater and more efficient energy utilization is needed and, if feasible, could be realized by sharing energy between devices to increase mission effectiveness. Recommendation 2-2. Standard and robust power connectors/adapters and smart chargers should be developed so that batteries and other power sources can be shared between devices. Finding 2-3. Power and energy requirements are mission critical, needing increased capability and reduced operator weight and volume burden. Recommendation 2-3. SOCOM’s acquisition process should make the power-energy issue a very high priority and demand greater efficiencies by aggressively pursuing energy conservation and management in device design through hardware and software improvements and the exploitation of emerging battery and power source technologies. This should be carried out in parallel and in the context of likely SOCOM mission scenarios. SOCOM should heed the relevant recommendations of two previous NRC reports as they apply to its unique mission needs (see Appendix C). Finding 2-4. The SOF URFS requirement is so unique and demanding that conventional research and development is very unlikely to meet it.

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ABBREVIATED VERSION 23 Recommendation 2-4. SOCOM should continue to engage leading universities, the national and service laboratories, and industry in grand challenges to meet SOF-unique requirements, e.g., small, efficient, agile, multiple-band antennas and enhanced power sources. Finding 2-5. The cost of even a specially developed URF system is very small compared to the overall mission costs and returns from critical SOF mission accomplishment. Recommendation 2-5. SOCOM and the DOD should expeditiously procure and field the specialized URFS equipment necessary for SOF mission success. Finding 3-1. The primary differences between handheld and manpackable radio systems are the transmit power amplifier (PA) power and the battery. Finding 3-2. In the past, the need for mission flexibility drove SOCOM to unique solutions, resulting in a large inventory. As a result, some manpackable and handheld systems are nearly identical in function yet they coexist in the current inventory. That raises the issue of how SOCOM might be able to reduce the number of such systems to streamline training and logistics while maintaining competition and industrial knowledge base. Finding 3-3. Most current RF systems use omnidirectional, narrowband (e.g., 25 kHz), single- polarization antenna systems, which are not compatible with emerging wider band systems. A transition to the wideband systems necessary for adding new functionality would require new RF transmit and receive (LNAs, PAs, filters, ADCs, dual-polarization antennas, etc.) architectures. Finding 3-4. Many of the existing state-of-the art RF systems of interest are SDRs that are not necessarily compatible with the DOD JTRS software communications architecture (SCA). Finding 3-7. Warfighter load is exacerbated by the number and type of RF systems and batteries. Advanced batteries, energy conversion and/or hybrid technologies, and energy conservation measures have the potential to significantly decrease operator SWaP burdens. However, the introduction of energy conversion technologies must be traded against operation with batteries alone with respect to size, weight, logistics, operational factors, and thermal and acoustic signatures. Recommendation 4-1. SOCOM should establish a structured URFS program to address the far- term technology research issues. The program should include the formal feedback of lessons learned from the operational use of near- and medium term capabilities identified above. The program should also incorporate relevant efforts from the research and technology development community at large—for example, the military service laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and appropriate foreign sources.

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