available or in development by industry, the national and service laboratories, and university research establishments in the following areas: command and control; situational awareness and tracking; navigation and geolocation; hostile force tagging, tracking, and locating; signals intelligence; SOF blue force tracking; communications; and countering improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It also examined five areas not specifically called out in the project scope that it believes are critical support functions without which the goals of a universal radio frequency system (URFS) cannot be attained—namely, information assurance, which includes TRANSEC/COMSEC, antitamper and low probability of intercept/low probability of detection (LPI/LPD); size, weight, and power (SWaP); usability; interoperability; and, sustainability. For each area, the committee considers the systems that are fielded by SOF (roughly TRL-7 and higher), the systems available (TRL-5 and greater) or fielded by other parts of the Department of Defense (DOD), and the systems under development as an emerging technology (TRL-4 and below). For the sake of brevity, the committee has not attempted to exhaustively cover every product, system, or program that falls into each category; the systems covered are representative of the current state of the art in each of the three technology time frames.

Command and Control, Including Situational Awareness and SOF Blue Force Tracking

While the statement of task separates command and control (C2) from situational awareness and tracking and blue force tracking, in this chapter these areas are merged, because proper C2 implies situational awareness where the own-force aspect is obtained via SOF blue force tracking. Information on enemy forces needed for situational awareness is covered in the sections on hostile force tagging, tracking, and location and on signals intelligence.

Fielded Systems
Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below, for Blue Force Tracking1

The Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) system forms the principal digital command and control system for the Army at brigade level and below. All FBCB2 systems are interconnected through a communications infrastructure called the Tactical Internet to exchange situational awareness data and conduct C2. FBCB2 is interoperable with the maneuver control system, the All Source Analysis System, the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System, the Air and Missile Defense Work Station, and the Combat Service Support Control System. Blue force tracking employs L-band satellite communication links that have proved to be reliable over long distances and in mountainous terrain. Georeference data displayed includes enemy positions, friendly positions, and hazards and obstacles. The prime contactor for FBCB2 is Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (Dominguez Hill, California).

Command Post of the Future2

The Command Post of the Future (CPOF) is an executive-level decision support system providing situational awareness and collaborative tools for tactical decision making, planning, rehearsal, and execution management from corps to battalion level. CPOF supports visualization, information analysis, and collaboration in a single, integrated environment. CPOF operators interactively collaborate, sharing thoughts, workspace, and plans to analyze information and to evaluate courses of action with real-time feedback for an immediate and comprehensive view of


For more information on FBCB2, see http://peoc3t.monmouth.army.mil/fbcb2/about.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008.


For more information on CPOF, see http://peoc3t.monmouth.army.mil/battlecommand/bc_CPOF.html. Last accessed September 29, 2008.

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