in the past has been lost in the last several years as regulatory changes intended to apply to arms and related matters have been applied to scientific activities” (p. 160).

Little has changed in the implementation of ITAR since the decadal survey. The ITAR regulations continue to have major deleterious effects on international scientific activities that depend on satellites and have caused serious problems in the teaching of university space science and engineering classes. An NRC workshop8 highlighted a number of ongoing issues that are making international collaborations much more problematical: (1) uncertainty about the definition of fundamental research, (2) confusion about rules that apply to publication of results, (3) confusion over how ITAR regulations apply differently to universities, national laboratories, government, and industry, (4) confusion over license requirements related to the transmittal of information to non-U.S. project participants, and (5) added costs and time delays involved in obtaining licenses and technical-assistance agreements from the Department of State.

One result of the 2007 workshop was a renewed commitment by both the State Department and members of the university community to communicate more effectively on issues involving ITAR and to facilitate improvements in the efficiency and clarity with which the regulations are implemented. However, the only significant change in ITAR implementation that has occurred over the past year has been the appointment of a representative of the scientific community to the Defense Trade Advisory Group, which advises the Department of State on issues involving munitions exports.


The workshop was held on September 12 and 13, 2007, and Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop was published in 2008 (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.). The meeting had broad participation from the scientific community, university and laboratory administration, industry, the federal government, congressional staff, international space agencies, the policy community, and NRC staff.

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