Notes

Chapter 1

  

1Jackson, P.W. (1968). Life in classrooms. In A. Pollard and J. Bourne (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

Sosniak, L. (2001). The 9% challenge: Education in school and society. Teachers College Record, 103, 15.

  

2Center on Education Policy. (2008). Instructional Time in Elementary Schools: A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects. Washington, DC: Author.

  

3Lemke, J.L. (1992). The Missing Context in Science Education: Science. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association Conference, San Francisco.

Newton, P., Driver, R., and Osborne, J. (1999). The place of argumentation in the pedagogy of school science. International Journal of Science Education, 21(5), 553-576.

National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Rudolph, J.L. (2002). Scientists in the Classroom: The Cold War Reconstruction of American Science Education. New York: Palgrave.

  

4Falk, J.H., and Dierking, L.D. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Griffin, J. (1998). School-Museum Integrated Learning Experiences in Science: A Learning Journey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Technology, Sydney.

  

5National Research Council. (2009). Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments. P. Bell, B. Lewenstein, A.W. Shouse, and M.A. Feder (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.



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notes Chapter 1 1Jackson, P.W. (1968). Life in classrooms. In A. Pollard and J. Bourne (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Sosniak, L. (2001). The 9% challenge: Education in school and society. Teachers College Record, 103, 15. 2Centeron Education Policy. (2008). Instructional Time in Elementary Schools: A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects. Washington, DC: Author. 3Lemke, J.L. (1992). The Missing Context in Science Education: Science. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association Conference, San Francisco. Newton, P., Driver, R., and Osborne, J. (1999). The place of argumentation in the pedagogy of school science. International Journal of Science Education, 21(5), 553-576. National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Rudolph, J.L. (2002). Scientists in the Classroom: The Cold War Reconstruction of American Science Education. New York: Palgrave. 4Falk, J.H., and Dierking, L.D. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Griffin, J. (1998). School-Museum Integrated Learning Experiences in Science: A Learning Journey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Technology, Sydney. 5National Research Council. (2009). Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments. P. Bell, B. Lewenstein, A.W. Shouse, and M.A. Feder (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 191

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6Adapted from interviews with Grant Spickelmier and David Schaller and from the following evaluation report: Schaller, D., Haley Goldman, K., Spickelmeir, G., Allison-Bunnell, S., and Koepfler, S. (2009). Learning in the wild: What WolfQuest taught developers and game players. In J. Trant and D. Bearman (Eds.). Museums and the Web 2009: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Available: http://www.archimuse.com/mw2009/papers/schaller/schaller. html [accessed February 2010]. 7Adapted from “A Burger, a Beer . . . and a Side of Science,” Nancy Linde, WGBH Boston. (2008). In R.E. Yager and J. Falk (Eds.). Exemplary Science in Informal Education Settings: Standards-Based Success Stories. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. 8NationalResearch Council. (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 9NationalResearch Council. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (expanded ed.). Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Chapter 2 1Aikenhead, G. (1996). Science education: Border crossing into the subculture of science. Studies in Science Education, 27, 1-52. 2Adapted from Bonney, R., “Citizen Science at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.” In R.E. Yager and J. Falk (Eds.). (2008). Exemplary Science in Informal Education Settings: Standards-Based Success Stories. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. 3Storksdieck, M., and Falk, J.H. (2004). Evaluating public understanding of research pro- jects and initiatives. In D. Chittendan, G. Farmelo, and B.V. Lewenstein (Eds.), Creating Connections—Museums and the Public Understanding of Research (pp. 87-108). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. 4National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 5Jolly,E., Campbell, P., and Perlman, L. (2004). Engagement, Capacity, Continuity: A Trilogy for Student Success. St. Paul: GE Foundation and Science Museum of Minnesota. Tai, R.H., Liu, C.Q., Maltese, A.V., and Fan, X. (2006). Planning early for careers in science. Science, 312, 1143-1144. 6NationalResearch Council. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (expanded ed.). Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 7Osborne, J., Collins, S., Ratcliffe, M., Millar, R., and Duschl, R. (2003). What “ideas about science” should be taught in school science? A Delphi study of the expert community. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(7), 692-720. 8American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Surrounded by Science 192

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Chapter 3 1Tisdal,C. (2004). Going APE (Active Prolonged Exploration) at the Exploratorium. Phase 2 Summative Evaluation. Available: http: http://www.informalscience.org/evaluation/show/67 [accessed October 2008]. 2Korn, R. (2006). Search for Life: Summative Evaluation. New York: New York Hall of Science. Available: http://www.informalscience.org/evaluations/report_151.pdf [accessed October 2008]. 3National Research Council. (2009). Introduction. Chapters 5 and 8 in Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments, Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. P. Bell, B. Lewenstein, A.W. Shouse, and M.A. Feder (Eds.). Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 4Crowley, K., and Jacobs, M. (2002). Islands of expertise and the development of family scien- tific literacy. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning Conversations in Museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reeve, S., and Bell, P. (in press). Children’s self-documentation and understanding of the con- cepts “healthy” and “unhealthy.” International Journal of Science Education. 5NationalResearch Council. (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 6Allen, S. (1997). Using scientific inquiry activities in exhibit explanations. Science Education, 81(6), 715-734. Borun, M., and Miller, M. (1980). What’s in a Name? A Study of the Effectiveness of Explanatory Labels in a Science Museum. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Science Museum. Peart, B. (1984). Impact of exhibit type on knowledge gain, attitudes, and behavior. Curator, 27(3), 220-227. 7Guichard, H. (1995). Designing tools to develop the conception of learners. International Journal of Science Education, 17(2), 243-253. 8Randol, S.M. (2005). The Nature of Inquiry in Science Centers: Describing and Assessing Inquiry at Exhibits. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 9Koran, J.J., Koran, M.L., and Longino, S.J. (1986). The relationship of age, sex, attraction, and holding power with two types of science exhibits. Curator, 29(3), 227-235. 10Goldowsky, N. (2002). Lessons from Life: Learning from Exhibits, Animals and Interaction in a Museum. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, UMI#3055856, Harvard University. 11Allen, S., and Gutwill, J. (2004). Designing science museum exhibits with multiple interactive features: Five common pitfalls. Curator, 47(2), 199-212. 12Korn, R. (2003). The Science Museum of Minnesota: Cell Lab Summative Evaluation. Available: http://www.informalscience.org/evaluations/report_174.pdf [accessed February 2010]. Interviews with Kirsten Ellenbogen and Laurie Fink were also part of the research for this case study. 193 Notes

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13Humphrey, T., and Gutwill, J.P. (Eds.). (2005). Fostering Active Prolonged Engagement: The Art of Creating APE Exhibits. San Francisco: The Exploratorium. 14Adapted from an interview with Erik Thogersen, senior exhibit developer at the Exploratorium. 15Adapted from an interview with Diane Miller, vice president of education at the St. Louis Science Center. 16Apley, A. (2006). DragonflyTV GPS: Going Places in Science Study of Collaboration Between Museums and Media. Available: http://www.informalscience.org [accessed November 2008]. Apley, A. (2007). DragonflyTV: Going Places in Science Children’s Viewing Study. Available: http://www.informalscience.org/evaluation/show/78 [accessed February 2010]. Chapter 4 1Allen, S. (2002). Transcripts from research from the Frogs exhibit. Unpublished. 2Blum-Kulka, S. (1997). Dinner Talk: Cultural Patterns of Sociability and Socialization in Family Discourse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Callanan, M.A., Shrager, J., and Moore, J. (1995). Parent-child collaborative explanations: Methods of identification and analysis. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4, 105-129. 3Blum-Kulka, S. (2002). Do you believe that Lot’s wife is blocking the road (to Jericho)? Co- constructing theories about the world with adults. In S. Blum-Kulka and C.E. Snow (Eds.), Talking to Adults: The Contribution of Multiparty Discourse to Language Acquisition (pp. 85- 116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Tenenbaum, H.R., and Callanan, M.A. (2008). Parents’ science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(1), 1-12. 4Callanan, M.A., and Oakes, L. (1992). Preschoolers’ questions and parents’ explanations: Causal thinking in everyday activity. Cognitive Development, 7, 213-233. Chouinard, M.M. (2007). Children’s questions: A mechanism for cognitive development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 72(1), 1-121. 5National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 6Reiser,R.A., Tessmer, M.A., and Phelps, P.C. (1984). Adult-child interaction in children’s lear- ning from Sesame Street. Educational Communications and Technology, 32(4), 217-233. 7Haefner, M.J., and Wartella, E.A. (1987). Effects of sibling coviewing on children’s interpreta- tions of television programming. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 31(2), 153-168. 8Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., and Gonzalez, N. (2005). Funding of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. In L. Moll, C. Amanti, and N. Gonzalez (Eds.), Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms (pp. 71-88). London: Routledge. Surrounded by Science 194

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Palmquist, S., and Crowley, K. (2007). From teachers to testers: How parents talk to novice and expert children. Science Education, 91(5), 783-804. 9Fienberg, J., and Leinhardt, G. (2002). Looking through the glass: Reflections of iden- tity in conversations at a history museum. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning Conversations in Museums (pp. 167-211). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 10Koran, J.J., Koran, M.L., and Foster, J.S. (1988). Using modeling to direct attention. Curator, 31(1), 36-42. 11Saltz, C., Crocker, N., and Banks, B. (2004). Evaluation of Service at the Salado for Fall 2004. Tempe: Arizona State University International Institute for Sustainability. Available: http:// caplter.asu.edu/explorers/riosalado/pdf/fall04_report.pdf [accessed October 2008]. 12Cazden, C.B. (2001). Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Heinemann. National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 13Gee,J.P. (1994). First language acquisition as a guide for theories of learning and pedagogy. Linguistics and Education, 6(4), 331-354. Lemke, J.L. (1990). Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 14Pedretti,E.G., MacDonald, R.G., Gitari, W., and McLaughlin, H. (2001). Visitor perspec- tives on the nature and practice of science: Challenging beliefs through “a question of truth.” Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 4, 399-418. 15Adapted from Allen, S. (2002). Looking for learning in visitor talk: A methodological explora- tion. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.). Learning Conversations in Museums (pp. 259-303). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 16Callanan, M.A., and Jipson, J.L. (2001). Explanatory conversation and young children’s developing scientific literacy. In K. Crowley, C.D. Schumm, and T. Okada (Eds.), Designing for Science: Implications from Everyday, Classroom, and Professional Settings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 17Crowley, K., and Galco, J. (2001). Family conversations and the emergence of scientific liter- acy. In K. Crowley, C. Schunn, and T. Okada (Eds.), Designing for Science: Implications from Everyday, Classroom, and Professional Settings (pp. 393-413). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 18Tisdal, C. (2004). Going APE (Active Prolonged Exploration) at the Exploratorium. Phase 2 Summative Evaluation. Available: http://www.informalscience.org/evaluation/show/67 [accessed October 2008]. 19Gleason,M.E., and Schauble, L. (2000). Parents’ assistance of their children’s scientific reaso- ning. Cognition and Instruction, 17(4), 343-378. 195 Notes

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20Crowley, K., and Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activi- ty. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning Conversations in Museums (pp. 333-356). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 21Callanan, M.A., and Oakes, L. (1992). Preschoolers’ questions and parents’ explanations: Causal thinking in everyday activity. Cognitive Development, 7, 213-233. Chouinard, M.M. (2007). Children’s questions: A mechanism for cognitive development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 72(1), 1-121. 22National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Chapter 5 1Johnson,A. (2003). Summative Evaluation of Coral Reef Adventure—An IMAX® Dome Film: Post-Viewing Telephone Interviews. Unpublished report. 2Falk, J.H., and Storksdieck, M. (2005). Using the contextual model of learning to understand visitor learning from a science center exhibition. Science Education, 89, 744-778. 3Nasir,N.S., Rosebery, A.S., Warren B., and Lee, C.D. (2006). Learning as a cultural process: Achieving equity through diversity. In R.K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp. 489-504). New York: Cambridge University Press. 4NationalResearch Council. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (expanded ed.). Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 5Falk, J., and Dierking, L.D. (2000). Learning from Museums. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. 6Hayward, J. (1997). Conservation Study, Phase 2: An Analysis of Visitors’ Perceptions About Conservation at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Northampton, MA: People, Places, and Design Research. Yalowitz, S.S. (2004). Evaluating visitor conservation research at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Curator, 47(3), 283-298. 7Myers, G., Saunders, C.D., and Birjulin, A.A. (2004). Emotional dimensions of watching zoo animals: An experience sampling study building on insights from psychology. Curator, 47, 299- 321. 8Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K., and Whalen, S. (1993). Talented Teenagers: The Roots of Success and Failure. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lipstein, R., and Renninger, K.A. (2006). “Putting things into words”: The development of 12-15-year-old students’ interest for writing. In P. Boscolo and S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and Writing: Research and School Practice (pp. 113-140). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Surrounded by Science 196

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Renninger, K.A., and Hidi, S. (2002). Interest and achievement: Developmental issues raised by a case study. In A. Wigfield and J. Eccles (Eds.), Development of Achievement Motivation (pp. 173-195). New York: Academic Press. 9Lipstein,R., and Renninger, K.A. (2006). “Putting things into words”: The development of 12-15-year-old students’ interest for writing. In P. Boscolo and S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and Writing: Research and School Practice (pp. 113-140). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Renninger, K.A., and Hidi, S. (2002). Interest and achievement: Developmental issues raised by a case study. In A. Wigfield and J. Eccles (Eds.), Development of Achievement Motivation (pp. 173-195). New York: Academic Press. Renninger, K.A., Sansone, C., and Smith, J.L. (2004). Love of learning. In C. Peterson and M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (pp. 161-179). New York: Oxford University Press. 10Falk,J.H., Reinhard, E.M., Vernon, C.L., Bronnenkant, K., Deans, N.L., and Heimlich, J.E. (2007). Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit. Silver Spring, MD: Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 11Perry,D.L. (1994). Designing exhibits that motivate. In R.J. Hannapel (Ed.), What Research Says About Learning in Science Museums (vol. 2, pp. 25-29). Washington, DC: Association of Science-Technology Centers. 12Adapted from D.L. Perry. (1992). Designing exhibits that motivate. ASTC Newsletter. 13Hidi,S., and Renninger, K.A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127. Renninger, K.S. (2007). Interest and Motivation in Informal Science Learning. Unpublished report. Available: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Renninger_Commissioned_Paper.pdf [accessed February 2010]. 14Serrell, B. (2006). Judging Exhibitions: A Framework for Assessing Excellence. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. 15Fusco,D. (2001). Creating relevant science through urban planning and gardening. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(8), 800-877. 16Holland, D., Lachicotte, W., Skinner, D., and Cain, C. (1998). Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hull, G.A., and Greeno, J.G. (2006). Identity and agency in nonschool and school worlds. In Z. Bekerman, N. Burbules, and D.S. Keller (Eds.), Learning in Places: The Informal Education Reader (pp. 77-97). New York: Peter Lang. 17Beane, D.B., and Pope, M.S. (2002). Leveling the playing field through object-based service learning. In S.G. Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums (pp. 325- 349). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. McCreedy, D. (2005). Engaging adults as advocates. Curator, 48(2), 158-176. 18Anderson, D. (2003). Visitors’ long-term memories of world expositions. Curator, 46(4), 401- 420. Falk, J.H. (2006). The impact of visit motivation on learning: Using identity as a construct to understand the visitor experience. Curator, 49(2), 151-166. 197 Notes

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Leinhardt, G., and Knutson, K. (2004). Listening in on Museum Conversations. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 19Roth, E.J., and Li, E. (2005, April). Mapping the Boundaries of Science Identity in ISME’s First Year. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal. Weinburgh, M.H., and Steele, D. (2000). The modified attitude toward science inventory: Developing an instrument to be used with fifth grade urban students. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 6(1), 87-94. 20Brown, B., Reveles, J., and Kelly, G. (2004). Scientific literacy and discursive identity: A theo- retical framework for understanding science learning. Science Education, 89(5), 779-802. Hull, G.A., and Greeno, J.G. (2006). Identity and agency in nonschool and school worlds. In Z. Bekerman, N. Burbules, and D.S. Keller (Eds.), Learning in Places: The Informal Education Reader (pp. 77-97). New York: Peter Lang. Holland, D., and Lave, J. (Eds.). (2001). History in Person: Enduring Struggles, Contentious Practice, Intimate Identities. Albuquerque, NM: School of American Research Press. Jacoby, S., and Gonzales, P. (1991). The constitution of expert-novice in scientific discourse. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 149-181. Rounds, J. (2006). Doing identity work in museums. Curator, 49(2), 133-150. 21Hull,G.A., and Greeno, J.G. (2006). Identity and agency in nonschool and school worlds. In Z. Bekerman, N. Burbules, and D.S. Keller (Eds.), Learning in Places: The Informal Education Reader (pp. 77-97). New York: Peter Lang. Jacoby, S., and Gonzales, P. (1991). The constitution of expert-novice in scientific discourse. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 149-181. Brown, B., Reveles, J., and Kelly, G. (2004). Scientific literacy and discursive identity: A theore- tical framework for understanding science learning. Science Education, 89(5), 779-802. 22Ellenbogen, K.M. (2003). From dioramas to the dinner table: An ethnographic case study of the role of science museums in family life. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(3), 846-847. 23Falk, J.H., Reinhard, E.M., Vernon, C.L., Bronnenkant, K., and Heimlich, J.E. (2007). Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit to a Zoo or Aquarium. Silver Spring, MD: Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Surrounded by Science 198

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Chapter 6 1Schwartz, D.L., Bransford, J.D., and Sears, D. (2005). Efficiency and innovation in transfer. In J.P. Mestre (Ed.), Transfer of Learning from a Modern Multidisciplinary Perspective (pp. 1-51). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. 2National Research Council. (2002). Scientific Research in Education. Committee on Scientific Principles for Education Research. R.J. Shavelson and L. Towne (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 3Serrell, B. (1998). Paying Attention: Visitors and Museum Exhibitions. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums. 4NationalScience Foundation. (2008). Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects. Available: http://caise.insci.org/resources/Eval_Framework.pdf [accessed October 2009]. 5Institute for Learning Innovation. (2007). Evaluation of Learning in Informal Learning Environments. Paper prepared for the Committee on Science Education for Learning Science in Informal Environments. Chapter 7 1Heath, S. (2007). Diverse Learning and Learner Diversity in “Informal” Science Learning Environments. Background paper for the Committee on Science Education for Learning Science in Informal Environments. Available: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Brice%20Health_ Commissioned_Paper.pdf [accessed November 2008]. 2Allen, G., and Seumptewa, O. (1993). The need for strengthening Native American science and mathematics education. In S. Carey (Ed.), Science for All Cultures: A Collection of Articles from NSTA’s Journals (pp. 38-43). Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association. Banks, J.A. (2007). Educating Citizens in Multicultural Society (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. Cajete, G. (1993). Look Top the Mountain: An Ecology of Indian Education. Skyland, NC: Kivaki Press. MacIvor, M. (1995). Redefining science education for aboriginal students. In M. Battiste and J. Barman (Eds.), First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds (pp. 73-98). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Malcom, S.M., and Matyas, M.L. (Eds.). (1991). Investing in Human Potential: Science and Engineering at the Crossroads. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Snively, G. (1995). Bridging traditional science and Western science in the multicultural classroom. In G. Snively and A. MacKinnon (Eds.), Thinking Globally About Mathematics and Science Education (pp. 53-75). Vancouver: University of British Columbia, Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction. 3Barton, A.C. (2008). Creating hybrid spaces for engaging school science among urban middle school girls. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 68-103. 199 Notes

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4Garcia-Luis,V. (2007). Exploratorium’s public programs community engagement initiative. Unpublished technical report. Garibay, C. (2009). Latinos, leisure values and decisions: Implications for informal science lear- ning and engagement. The Informal Learning Review, 94. Monaco, G., and Strasser, D. (2006). The new faces of Ohio history: Perceptions of history and the Ohio Historical Society among diverse groups. Unpublished technical report. 5Garibay, C. (2004). Animal Secrets Bilingual Labels Formative Evaluation. Unpublished manu- script, Garibay Group, Chicago. Garibay, C., and Gilmartin, J. (2003). Chocolate Summative Evaluation at the Field Museum. Unpublished manuscript, Garibay Group, Chicago. 6Allen, S. (2007). Secrets of Circles: Summative Evaluation Report. Unpublished manuscript. 7Based on an interview with Jenni Martin and on the following reports: Allen, S. (2007). Secrets of Circles: Summative Evaluation Report. Unpublished manuscript; and Garibay, C. (2008). Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose: Vietnamese Audience Development Initiative, unpu- blished manuscript; Garibay Group, Chicago, Fall/Winter 2008. 8Garibay, C. (2004). Animal Secrets Bilingual Labels Formative Evaluation. Unpublished manu- script, Garibay Group, Chicago. Garibay, C., and Gilmartin, J. (2003). Chocolate Summative Evaluation at the Field Museum. Unpublished manuscript, Garibay Group, Chicago. 9Ash, D. (2004). Reflective scientific sense-making dialogue in two languages: The science in the dialogue and the dialogue in the science. Science Education, 88, 855-884. Wheaton, M., and Ash, D. (2008). Exploring middle school girls’ ideas about science at a bilin- gual marine science camp. Journal of Museum Education, 33(2), 131-143. 10Karp, J., and LeBlong, J. (2004). Making Models: Summative Report, Museum of Science, Boston. Unpublished manuscript. 11American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1976). A Report on the Barriers Obstructing Entry to Native Americans into the Sciences. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 12Aikenhead, G. (2001). Cross-cultural Science Teaching: Praxis. A paper presented at the annu- al meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St. Louis, MO, March 26-28. 13Adapted from interviews with Bonnie Sachatello-Sawyer and Helen Augare. Chapter 8 1Jones, J. (2005). Huntington Botanical Gardens: Summative Evaluation Conservatory for Botanical Science: Report for Huntington Botanical Gardens. Available: http://www.informal science.org/evaluations/report_242.PDF [accessed October 2008]. 2Falk,J.H., and Dierking, L.D. (2002). Lessons Without Limit: How Free Choice Learning Is Transforming Education. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Surrounded by Science 200

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3Baillargeon,R. (2004). How do infants learn about the physical world? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 133-140. Cohen, L.B., and Cashon, C.H. (2006). Infant cognition. In W. Damon and R.M. Lerner (Series Eds.) and D. Kuhn and R.S. Siegler (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Cognition, Perception, and Language (vol. 2, 6th ed., pp. 214-251). New York: Wiley. 4Krist, H., Fieberg, E.L., and Wilkening, F. (1993). Intuitive physics in action and judgment: The development of knowledge about projectile motion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(4), 952. 5Chi, M.T.H., and Koeske, R.D. (1983). Network representation of a child’s dinosaur know- ledge. Developmental Psychology, 19(1), 29-39. Crowley, K., and Jacobs, M. (2002). Islands of expertise and the development of family scien- tific literacy. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning Conversations in Museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 6National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 7Korpan, C.A., Bisanz, G.L., Bisanz, J., and Lynch, M.A. (1998). Charts: A Tool for Surveying Young Children’s Opportunities to Learn About Science Outside of School. Ottawa: Canadian Social Science and Humanities Research Council. 8Farenga, S.J., and Joyce, B.A. (1997). Beyond the classroom: Gender differences in science experiences. Education, 117, 563-568. 9Falk,J.H., and Dierking, L.D. (2002). Lessons Without Limit: How Free Choice Learning Is Transforming Education. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. 10Falk,J.H., and Dierking, L.D. (2002). Lessons Without Limit: How Free Choice Learning Is Transforming Education. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. 11Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J., and Collins, W.A. (2003). Autonomy development during ado- lescence. In G.R. Adams and M.D. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Adolescence (pp. 175-204). Malden, MA: Blackwell. 12Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Larson, R. (1984). Being Adolescent. New York: Basic Books. 13Eccles,J.S., Lord, S., and Buchanan, C.M. (1996). School transitions in early adolescence: What are we doing to our young people? In J. Graber, J. Brooks-Gunn, and A. Petersen (Eds.), Transitions Through Adolescence: Interpersonal Domains and Context (pp. 251-284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 14Greenberger, E., and Steinberg, L. (1986). When Teenagers Work: The Psychological and Social Costs of Adolescent Employment. New York: Basic Books. Mahoney, J.L., Larson, R.W., and Eccles, J.S. (2005). Organized activities as development contexts for children and adolescents. In J.L. Mahoney, R.W. Larson, and J.S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized Activities as Contexts of Development: Extracurricular Activities, After-School and Community Programs (pp. 3-22). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 201 Notes

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15AfterschoolAlliance. (2008). 21st Century Learning Centers Providing Supports to Communities Nationwide. Available: http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/researchFactSheets.cfm [accessed October 2008]. 16Project Exploration. (2006). Project Exploration Youth Programs Evaluation. Available: http://www.projectexploration.org [accessed July 2007]. 17Adapted from the Project Exploration website: http://www.projectexploration.org/summer- scrapbook-07.htm and input from Gabrielle Lyon, executive director of Project Exploration. 18Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecology perspective. Human Development, 49(4), 153-224. 19Flynn, K.E., Smith, M.A., and Freese, J. (2006). When do older adults turn to the Internet for health information? Findings from the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(12), 1295-1301. 20Kelly, L., Savage, G., Landman, P., and Tonkin, S. (2002). Energised, Engaged, Everywhere: Older Australians and Museums. Canberra: National Museum of Australia. 21Sachatello-Sawyer, B., Fellenz, R.A., Burton, H., Gittings-Carlson, L., Lewis-Mahony, J., and Woolbaugh, W. (2002). Adult Museum Programs: Designing Meaningful Experiences. American Association for State and Local History Book Series. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: AltaMira Press. 22Adapted from information found on the Road Watch on the Pass website: http://www.rockies. ca/roadwatch. 23Lee, T., Duke D., and Quinn, M. (2006). Road Watch in the Pass: Using citizen science to identify wildlife crossing locations along Highway 3 in the Crows Nest Pass of south- western Alberta. In C.L. Irwin, P. Garrett, and K.P. McDermott (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation (p. 638). Raleigh: North Carolina State University, Center for Transportation and the Environment. 24Benbow, A.E. (2002). Communicating with Older Adults: A Guide for Health Care and Senior Service Professionals and Staff. Seattle: SPRY Foundation/Caresource Healthcare Communications. 25American Transportation Association. (2007). Transitions to Transportation Options: How They Affect Older Adults. Available: http://www.apta.com/gap/policyresearch/Documents/ transitions.pdf [accessed February 2010]. 26Kelly, L., Savage, G., Landman, P., and Tonkin, S. (2002). Energised, Engaged, Everywhere: Older Australians and Museums. Canberra: National Museum of Australia. 27McKhann, G., and Albert, M. (2002). Keep Your Brain Young. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 28Craik, F.I.M., and Salthouse, T.A. (Eds.). (2000). The Handbook of Aging and Cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 29Adapted from the Project SEE website: http://www.marshmemoirs.com/about.htm. 30Elder, G.H. (1974). Children of the Great Depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Surrounded by Science 202

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Chapter 9 1Schauble, L., and Bartlett, K. (1997). Constructing a science gallery for children and families: The role of research in an innovative design process. Science Education, 81(6), 781-793. 2See various publications by John Falk and Lynn Dierking that discuss interconnected systems for lifelong learning from a programmatic perspective. 3So-calledsubsequent reinforcing experiences or follow-up that connects individual learning experiences have been researched by a variety of scholars (often as longitudinal research), although evaluation and research still does not fully appreciate the need to understand the con- nections between individual experiences (how and why chosen, and how linked). 4Much of this literature is now accessible online and provided by the informal setting, although there are also comprehensive guides in book form available, such as Kathleen Carroll’s A Guide to Great Field Trips (Zephir Press, 2007), which combines practical how-to advice with summa- ries of scholarly work on field trips. 5Kubota, C.A., and Olstad, R.G. (1991). Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on explorato- ry behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(3), 225-234. 6Price,S., and Hein, G.E. (1991). More than a field trip: Science programmes for elementary school groups at museums. International Journal of Science Education, 13(5), 505-519. 7Koran,J.J., Koran, M.L., and Ellis, J. (1989). Evaluating the effectiveness of field experiences: 1939-1989. Scottish Museum News, 4(2), 7-10. 8Griffin,J., and Symington, D. (1997). Moving from task-oriented to learning-oriented strate- gies on school excursions to museums. Science Education, 81(6), 763-779. 9Burtnyk, K.M., and Combs, D.J. (2005). Parent chaperones as field trip facilitators: A case study. Visitor Studies Today, 8(1), 13-20. Available: http://www.informalscience.org/researches/ VSA-a0a5z9-a_5730.pdf [accessed February 2010]. 10Griffin, J. (1994). Learning to learn in informal science settings. Research in Science Education, 24(1), 121-128. 11Anderson, D., Kisiel, J., and Storksdieck, M. (2006). Understanding teachers’ perspectives on field trips: Discovering common ground in three countries. Curator, 49(3), 365-386. DeWitt, J., and Storksdieck, M. (2008). A short review on school field trips: Key findings from the past and implications for the future. Visitor Studies, 11(2), 181-197. 12Adapted from an interview with Alan Lishness and the following report: Baldassari, C. (2008). LabVenture: At the Cohen Center for Interactive Learning. Summative Evaluation Report. Program Evaluation and Research Group, Lesley University. 13Baldassari, C. (2008). LabVenture: At the Cohen Center for Interactive Learning. Summative Evaluation Report. Program Evaluation and Research Group, Lesley University. 14Based on interviews with Julie Rose, coordinator of the Lake Washington Watershed Internship Program. 15McLaughlin, M. (2000). Community Counts: How Youth Organizations Matter for Youth Development. Washington, DC: Public Education Fund Network. 203 Notes

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16McLaughlin,M. (2000). Community Counts: How Youth Organizations Matter for Youth Development. Washington, DC: Public Education Fund Network. 17Noam, G., Biancarosa, G., and Dechausay, N. (2003). After-School Education: Approaches to an Emerging Field. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. 18Adapted from the following sources: 2002-2003 Report, MERITO website: http:// montereybay.noaa.gov/educate/merito/outreach-community.html [accessed February 2010], and National Marine Sanctuaries News & Events: Innovative Education Program Heightens Ocean Awareness: http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/news/features/0706_merito.html [accessed February 2010]. 19Anderson, D., Lawson, B., and Mayer-Smith, J. (2006). Investigating the impact of a practi- cum experience in an aquarium on pre-service teachers. Teaching Education, 17(4), 341-353. 20Weaver, D., and Wiitala, W. (2006). 2006 LASER Implementation Study Results. Portland, OR: RMC Research Corporation. 21National Research Council. (2006). Systems for State Science Assessment. Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement. M.R. Wilson and M.W. Bertenthal (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Surrounded by Science 204