Chapter 9


1Schauble, L., and Bartlett, K. (1997). Constructing a science gallery for children and families: The role of research in an innovative design process. Science Education, 81(6), 781-793.


2See various publications by John Falk and Lynn Dierking that discuss interconnected systems for lifelong learning from a programmatic perspective.


3So-called subsequent reinforcing experiences or follow-up that connects individual learning experiences have been researched by a variety of scholars (often as longitudinal research), although evaluation and research still does not fully appreciate the need to understand the connections between individual experiences (how and why chosen, and how linked).


4Much of this literature is now accessible online and provided by the informal setting, although there are also comprehensive guides in book form available, such as Kathleen Carroll’s A Guide to Great Field Trips (Zephir Press, 2007), which combines practical how-to advice with summaries of scholarly work on field trips.


5Kubota, C.A., and Olstad, R.G. (1991). Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(3), 225-234.


6Price, S., and Hein, G.E. (1991). More than a field trip: Science programmes for elementary school groups at museums. International Journal of Science Education, 13(5), 505-519.


7Koran, J.J., Koran, M.L., and Ellis, J. (1989). Evaluating the effectiveness of field experiences: 1939-1989. Scottish Museum News, 4(2), 7-10.


8Griffin, J., and Symington, D. (1997). Moving from task-oriented to learning-oriented strategies on school excursions to museums. Science Education, 81(6), 763-779.


9Burtnyk, K.M., and Combs, D.J. (2005). Parent chaperones as field trip facilitators: A case study. Visitor Studies Today, 8(1), 13-20. Available: [accessed February 2010].


10Griffin, J. (1994). Learning to learn in informal science settings. Research in Science Education, 24(1), 121-128.


11Anderson, D., Kisiel, J., and Storksdieck, M. (2006). Understanding teachers’ perspectives on field trips: Discovering common ground in three countries. Curator, 49(3), 365-386.

DeWitt, J., and Storksdieck, M. (2008). A short review on school field trips: Key findings from the past and implications for the future. Visitor Studies, 11(2), 181-197.


12Adapted from an interview with Alan Lishness and the following report: Baldassari, C. (2008). LabVenture: At the Cohen Center for Interactive Learning. Summative Evaluation Report. Program Evaluation and Research Group, Lesley University.


13Baldassari, C. (2008). LabVenture: At the Cohen Center for Interactive Learning. Summative Evaluation Report. Program Evaluation and Research Group, Lesley University.


14Based on interviews with Julie Rose, coordinator of the Lake Washington Watershed Internship Program.


15McLaughlin, M. (2000). Community Counts: How Youth Organizations Matter for Youth Development. Washington, DC: Public Education Fund Network.

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