Index

A

A Question of Truth (exhibit), 67

Academies for Young Scientists, 188-189, 190

Access to science learning.

See also Cultural, diversity, and equity issues

videoconferencing technology, 154, 155

Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50

Adult science learning.

See also Citizen science;

Science Cafés;

Senior citizens

characteristics of experiences, 148-149

evidence of learning, 151

identity building, 81-82

interest and motivating factors, 146-147, 148-149, 151

number and type of programs, 148

opportunities, 4, 16, 29, 88, 146-151, 169

perceptions of institutions and programs, 148

pyramid image, 149

venues, 147-148

After-school programs. See Out-of-school-time programs

Aikenhead, Glen, 132

Albert, Marilyn, 152

Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, 150

All Girls Expedition to Yellowstone (program), 144-145

Allen, Sue, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73

Allen and Associates, 124-125

Amateur science clubs, 1, 2, 4, 15-16, 26, 30, 88, 139, 142, 175

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 132

American Sign Language, 130

Ancient Observatories (exhibit), 129

Anderson, David, 180

Apley, Alice, 58, 59

Aquariums. See Zoos and aquariums

Assessment of learning outcomes

challenges, 5, 103-105, 142, 165-166

consensus building on, 109, 111, 113

construct validity, 106

content analyses of discussions, 106

conversation taping and analysis, 66, 68-72, 79, 107

defined, 111

designed environments, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, 112

developing appropriate assessments, 105-111, 112-113

ecological validity, 106

embedded in activities, 109, 113

evaluation distinguished from, 111-113

evidence base, 5

extended learning opportunities, 165, 179, 180-181

generally, 2

goal setting, 105, 112, 113

long-term learning, 106-107, 108

methods, 105

outcome and measurement approaches, 105-106, 108-109, 113-114, 165-166

pretest, 179



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Index A American Association for the Advancement of Science, 132 American Sign Language, 130 A Question of Truth (exhibit), 67 Ancient Observatories (exhibit), 129 Academies for Young Scientists, 188-189, 190 Anderson, David, 180 Access to science learning. See also Cultural, diversity, Apley, Alice, 58, 59 and equity issues Aquariums. See Zoos and aquariums videoconferencing technology, 154, 155 Assessment of learning outcomes Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50 challenges, 5, 103-105, 142, 165-166 Adult science learning. See also Citizen science; Science consensus building on, 109, 111, 113 Cafés; Senior citizens construct validity, 106 characteristics of experiences, 148-149 content analyses of discussions, 106 evidence of learning, 151 conversation taping and analysis, 66, 68-72, 79, 107 identity building, 81-82 defined, 111 interest and motivating factors, 146-147, 148-149, designed environments, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, 151 112 number and type of programs, 148 developing appropriate assessments, 105-111, 112- opportunities, 4, 16, 29, 88, 146-151, 169 113 perceptions of institutions and programs, 148 ecological validity, 106 pyramid image, 149 embedded in activities, 109, 113 venues, 147-148 evaluation distinguished from, 111-113 After-school programs. See Out-of-school-time evidence base, 5 programs extended learning opportunities, 165, 179, 180-181 Aikenhead, Glen, 132 generally, 2 Albert, Marilyn, 152 goal setting, 105, 112, 113 Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, 150 long-term learning, 106-107, 108 All Girls Expedition to Yellowstone (program), 144-145 methods, 105 Allen, Sue, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73 outcome and measurement approaches, 105-106, Allen and Associates, 124-125 108-109, 113-114, 165-166 Amateur science clubs, 1, 2, 4, 15-16, 26, 30, 88, 139, pretest, 179 142, 175 209

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Children and youth. See also Out-of-school-time programs, 4, 54, 114, 135, 189-190 programs; Parent-child interactions; Playing to resources for developing, 114 learn scale of outcomes, 104-105, 108 adolescents, 142 sharing, 114 cognitive development and learning, 140-141 social norms and, 109 metacognition, 38-39 standardized, 109, 111, 113 opportunities for learning, 52-60, 140-146 strands framework and, 108-110, 179 science identity building, 30-31 surveys, 23, 33, 106, 173 Children’s Discovery Museum, 73, 122, 123-126, 127, target audience, 105, 112 128, 129, 137 things to try, 32-33, 100, 113-114 Children’s Museum of Indianapolis, 83-86, 162 tracking and timing methods, 107 Citizen science Association of Science-Technology Centers, 189 activities, 2, 4, 22-24, 25, 35, 88, 149 Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 96, 101 social interactions, 65-66 Astronomy, 3, 15-16, 26 Web site, 34 Augare, Helen, 133, 134 City University of New York, 88 Clara Maass Continuing Care Center, 154 B Clubs. See Amateur science clubs Cognition and learning Backyard research, 15-16, 21, 22-24, 25, 32 affect and, 82-83 Bartlett, Karol, 162 barriers to, 54, 55 Bay Area Discovery Museum, 164 children and adolescents, 140-141 Benbow, Ann, 151 expert vs. novice, 13-14, 38-39, 60 Biodiesel fuel experiment, 98 intuitive ideas, 38, 39, 55, 140 Birdwatching, 133, 147, 149 older adults, 150-151 House Finch Eye Disease Survey, 24 principles, 17-18 Project FeederWatch, 21, 22-24, 25, 32 prior knowledge and, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, Seed Preference Test, 24, 25 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, 162 Blackfeet Community College, 132, 133 social interaction and, 14, 15, 17, 46, 66, 78-79, 83, Blackfeet Native Science Field Center, 132-136 87, 93, 97, 122 Blackfeet Reservation, 132 systematic approach to research, 13-17 Bonney, Rick, 22, 24, 205 Cohen Center for Interactive Learning, 170-174 Cohort effects, 155-157 C Collaborations and linkages for assessments, 114 Calabrese Barton, Angela, 121 challenges, 166 California Bay Watershed Education and Training community partnerships in design and development, Program, 177 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, California Science Center, 31, 169 158, 176-179, 184 Callanan, Maureen, 73 informal and formal environments, 166-175, 178- Cell Lab (exhibit), 43-48, 52, 66, 107, 109 182, 187-190 Cell phones, 163, 165 media and designed environments, 15-16, 44-46, 48, Center for Informal Learning and Schools, 189, 190 61 Center for the Advancement of Informal Science research investments in, 187-190 Education, 18, 34, 62, 80, 115, 159 scientific facility partnerships with schools, 170-174 Surrounded by Science 210

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generational issues, 123 sharing activities among museums, 48 integrating culture and science, 15, 89-93, 119-120, teacher professional development, 180-182 132-136 things to try, 184-185 language barriers, 120, 121, 122, 127, 129 value of, 179 in learning, 14-15 Color Connection (exhibit), 84-86 out-of-school-time programs, 143-145 Community partnerships, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, outreach model, 121, 123 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184 for people with disabilities, 120, 128, 130-131, 152, Conservation, 81-83, 96-97, 110 154, 155 Conversations and discussions things to try, 32, 136, 158 adult-child interactions, 7, 63-66, 73-76 tools and artifacts, 15 affective talk, 72 Culture of science. See also Scientific practices as assessment tool, 66, 68-72, 79, 106, 107 program examples, 89-91, 144-145, 146, 170-174 conceptual talk, 70-71 social interactions, 15, 19-20, 30, 32 connecting talk, 71 strand 5, 17, 30, 47, 55, 64, 93, 146, 151, 173 content analyses of discussions, 106 tools and language, 20, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 43-48, 55, designing space for, 46, 66 64, 146, 151, 173 evidence of learning, 68, 71 values of scientists, 20-21 with experts, 2 explanatory, 73-76 facilitating discussion, 10, 11, 46, 122 D in family settings, 1, 64-65, 166 learning opportunities, 2, 3 Davidson, Betty, 130 mediating strategies, 76, 79 Designed environments. See also Libraries; Museums and and motivation to learn, 63-64, 86 exploratoriums; Zoos and aquariums perceptual talk, 69-70 assessment as part of, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, provoking discussion, 6, 8, 12, 67 112 research challenges, 66, 68 examples, 2, 3-4 scientific norms and language learned in, 64, 66 extending the learning experiences, 4 strategic talk, 71-72 interactivity in, 3-4, 40, 41-48 things to try, 79 programs in, 4 TV viewing with, 65, 77, 78 time frame of experiences, 4 Coral Reef Adventure (movie), 81-82, 107 Designing for science learning Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 22-24, 33, 66, 149 Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50 Cosmic Serpent, 137 age considerations, 139, 157 Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, 161 challenges, 48-54 Craik, Fergus, 152 characteristics that encourage learning, 5, 37-38, 83- Crowley, Kevin, 73, 74, 75 86 CSI: Crime Scene Investigations, 29 cohort considerations, 155-157 Cultural, diversity, and equity issues community partnerships, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, audience development initiatives, 122, 123-127, 129 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184 building community relationships, 128, 129 computer modeling, 51 challenges of engaging nondominant cultures, 120, connected learning experiences, 162 122, 123-124, 128 cultural and diversity issues, 15, 120-127, 129, 132- designing inclusive exhibits, 15, 120-127, 129, 132- 136, 152 136, 152, 158 evaluation component, 111-113 equity issues, 120-127, 143-146 exploratory experiences, 16 211 Index

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formative, 111-112 future learning preparations, 183-184 front-end, 111, 129 insights from research on learning, 13-17, 38-39, 60- NSF framework, 109-111, 112, 115 61 reviewing data with outside experts, 33 interactive experiences, 32, 41-55, 56-60, 83-86 summative, 111, 112, 124-125, 126, 131 interpretive materials, 40, 85 Everyday science learning juxtaposition of prior knowledge and scientific backyard research, 21, 22-24, 25, 32 explanations, 14, 39-40, 41, 43 choosing to participate, 2, 3-4 learning progressions, 182-183 examples, 28 long-term experiences, 16, 52-55 range of experiences, 2, 3 media, 56-60 signs of competence and learning, 3, 8, 173-174 motivation model, 83-86 Evolution traveling exhibit, 182-183 multiple modes of engagement, 5, 12, 16, 17, 32, 40, Exhibit Files, 159 41, 43, 47, 52, 55, 60, 67, 130-131, 164 Explora!, 57 museum exhibits, 14, 15, 40, 44-48, 50-52, 64, 83- Exploratorium in Second Life (exhibit), 164 87, 99, 112, 122-131, 162, 182-183 Exploratorium of San Francisco, 43-48, 51, 62, 63, 68, one-shot experiences, 16 69-72, 79, 87, 107, 112, 129, 137, 164, 188, 189, for people with disabilities, 128, 130-131 190 prior knowledge and interest and, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, Extended learning opportunities. See also Field trips; 17, 38-39, 42, 49, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, Formal science learning 162 adult pursuit of, 149 process, 52 assessment of, 165, 180-181 programs, 52, 53-55 design strategies, 40, 162 strands framework and, 31-32, 41-42, 47-48, 52, 55, field trips, 167-170 60, 87, 103 generally, 4, 7 strategies for implementing research, 39-41, 53-61 internship model, 174-175 structured exhibits, 16 learning progressions, 182-184 things to try, 60-61, 157-158 lending/sharing resources, 162 universal, 128 linking formal and informal settings, 166-179 Dierking, Lynn, 167 media platforms, 162-166, 185 Dolphins (movie), 82 motivation for, 87-88 Downhill Race (exhibit), 49 out-of-school-time programs, 176-179 DragonflyTV: Going Places in Science, 56-59, 62 professional development, 180-182 scientific facility partnerships with schools, 170-174 E things to try, 184-185 traveling exhibits, 4, 182-183 Elderhostel programs, 4 Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve, F 178-179 Ellenbogen, Kirsten, 46, 47, 48 Environmental centers, 2, 153, 154, 158 Falk, John, 95, 96, 100, 167 Equity in science education. See Cultural, diversity, and Family settings. See also Parent-child interactions equity issues conversations that promote learning, 1, 64-65, 166 Evaluation learning in, 38, 77, 78, 140-141 assessment distinguished from, 111-113 Family values, reinforcing, 95 defined, 111 Field trips evidence of learning, 7, 173-174 advance preparation, 167 Surrounded by Science 212

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hands-on activities, 167-168 Hein, George, 167 internship model, 174-175 Hidi, Suzanne, 87, 99 LabVenture model, 170-174 Hobbies/hobbyists, 2, 3, 23, 30-31, 78, 95, 96, 97, 104, reinforcement afterwards, 169-170 142, 146 teacher/chaperone involvement, 168-169 Hopa Mountain program, 132, 134, 137 value of, 167-170 Hot air balloon experiment, 57-59 Films and videos IMAX movies, 27, 56, 81-82, 87, 107, 161 I provoking discussion with, 8, 9-11, 12 Finding Nemo (film), 161 Identity. See Science identity building Fink, Laurie, 45, 47, 48 Informal Learning and Science in Afterschool: A Flagg, Barbara, 82 Research and Dissemination Project, 189-190 Flickr, 164 Informal science learning environments. See also Strands Follow-up learning opportunities. See Extended learning of science learning; specific environments opportunities categories, 2 Formal science learning characteristics that encourage learning, 2, 5-13, field trips, 167-170 16-17 instruction tie and quality, 1 cohort considerations, 155-157 learning progressions, 182-184 cumulative process, 161-162, 166 linking informal learning opportunities, 166-175, examples, 1, 16 188-190 importance, 1, 32 reform initiatives, 181-182 strands framework, 25-33 scientific facility partnerships, 170-174 time frame, 4 teacher professional development, 180-182 venues, 2-5 Frogs (exhibit), 63-64, 69-72, 107 Inquiry Fusco, Dana, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93 behaviors, 7, 24, 42, 57, 65, 78 curriculum materials, 181, 189 G developing skills, 173; see also Scientific reasoning processes, 24, 59, 135 scientific, 110, 181 Gardening and garden clubs, 30-31, 53, 89-91 storytelling devices, 56-60 Garibay, Cecilia, 121, 129 Institute for Learning Innovation, 7, 95, 96, 115 Garibay Group, 121, 126 Interactivity. See also Conversations and discussions; Gleason, Mary, 73-74 Parent-child interactions; Playing to learn Global warming, 9-11, 67 benefits for learning, 5, 38, 40, 41, 43 Glowing Worms (exhibit), 43, 87 challenges, 48-55 Goldowsky, Alexander, 42 defined, 40 Griffin, Janette, 168, 169 designing learning experiences, 32, 41-55, 56, 83-86 Grimmer, Karen, 178 “do and see” activities, 42 Guichard, Jack, 41 exhibits, 28, 40, 41-42, 43-52, 65, 66, 69-72, 83-86, Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 170-174 130-131, 167-168, 185 and inquiry behaviors, 42 H interpretive materials and, 40 kinds of experiences, 40 Haefner, Margaret, 65 media opportunities for, 15-16, 38, 40, 56-60, 163 Harvard University, 188, 190 optimal degree, 43 213 Index

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K roles that support learning, 45, 64, 65-66, 73, 75-76, 77-79 social, 14, 15, 46, 64-65, 66, 77-78, 79, 83, 87, 97, Kings College London, 188, 189 122 Koran, John, 42, 168 strands of learning, 41-42 Kubota, Carole, 167 things to try, 79 Interest and motivation L adults, 146-147, 148-149, 151, 153 age differences, 140 LaBar, Wayne, 165 assessment of, 66, 68-72, 79, 107 LabVenture! (program), 170-174, 179, 186 community garden project, 89-93 Lake Washington Watershed Internship Program, 174- conversation and, 63-64, 86 175, 179 cultivating and sustaining interest, 4, 5, 12, 18, 21, LASER (Leadership and Assistance for Science Education 25, 26, 49, 54, 87-93, 110, 151, 168 Reform), 181-182, 186 cultural considerations, 137-138 Latino Audience Development Initiative, 123, 129 identity-related, 97-99 Lawrence Hall of Science, 190 interactive experiences and, 14, 42. 49, 63-64, 146, Learning. See Assessment of learning outcomes; 167-168 Cognition and learning; Designing for science interest development model, 87-92, 99 learning; Everyday science learning; Informal motivation model, 84-86, 99, 100 science learning environments movies/films and, 81-82 Learning and Youth Research and Evaluation Center, museum exhibit design, 42, 47, 52, 64, 84-86, 100 188, 189, 190 role of interest, 82-87 Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) and science identity, 81-83, 93-97, 99, 100-101 Center, 188, 189, 190 strand 1, 26, 27, 42, 47, 52, 63-64, 82, 92-93, 110, Lectures, 4, 16, 29, 88, 148, 154, 169 146, 151, 179 Liberty Science Center, 163 structured activities, 167-168 Libraries, 1, 2, 3, 16, 141, 147, 148, 152, 154, 162, 166 things to try, 100 Library of Congress, 164 Internet Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou (film), 161 communities of peers online, 33 Life-stage perspectives on learning computer games, 2, 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 18, 106, 107, 109, adults, 146-151 156 children and youth, 30, 140-146 forums and other resources, 6, 23, 54, 163, 164 cohort effects, 155-157 learning activities, 2, 4, 33, 162, 183-184, 185 designing exhibits for, 46 personalized student websites, 172 senior citizens, 30-31, 139, 151-155 Web resources, 18, 34, 62, 79, 80, 101, 115, 137, things to try, 157-158 159, 164, 186 Lishness, Alan, 171 website design, 153 Lyndhurst Public Library, 154 ISEN-ASTC-L, 33 Lyon, Gabrielle, 145 J M Jacobs, Melanie, 74, 75 Magnitude X (exhibit), 129 Jipson, Jennifer, 73 Making Models (exhibit), 128, 130-131, 137 Marshall, Charles, 9, 10, 11, 12 Martin, Jenni, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129 Surrounded by Science 214

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lending kits and educational resources, 162 Maryland Science Center, 48 media platforms for extended learning experiences, McKhann, Guy, 152 71-72, 162, 163, 164, 165-166, 185 McLean, Kathleen, 40 online activities, 4, 33, 44-46, 162, 183-184, 185 Meadowlands Environmental Center, 153, 154, 158 parent-child interactions in, 73-76, 78, 95, 147 Media. See also Films and videos; Internet; Television perceptions of, 123 design strategies, 56-60 professional development for teachers, 180, 184 effectiveness and limitations, 15-16 programs, 4, 52-55, 148 interactivity, 40, 56-60, 71-72, 163 science clubs, 2 platforms for extended learning experiences, 15-16, science identity building, 95, 96-97 162-166, 185 sharing activities among museums, 48 Mentoring and mentors, 2, 4, 64, 65-66, 78, 88 social interaction, 52, 65, 66, 122 Mercer Slough Environmental Education Center, 175 skeleton exhibit experience, 41-42 Metacognition, 14, 38-39, 55, 60, 71 structured activities in field trips, 167-168 Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium, 182 Teenage Designers of Learning Spaces program, 52-55 Michigan State University, 121 traveling exhibits, 4, 182-183 Miistakis Institute for the Rockies, 150 visitor conversations studied in, 66, 68, 71-72, 107 Miller, Diane, 53, 54, 55, 78 Museums and the Web conference, 164 Miller, Joshua, 144 MythBusters, 29 The Mind (exhibit), 49-52, 66, 112 Minnesota Zoo, 6 Montana State University, 119 N Monterey Bay Aquarium, 82, 96, 101, 178 Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 177-179 Naïve understanding, 14 Motivation. See Interest and motivation National marine sanctuaries, 186 Multicultural Education for Resource Issues Threatening National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 177 Oceans (program), 177-179, 186 National Science Foundation, 109-111, 112, 115, 163, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 9 188-189 Museum of Science, Boston, 128, 130-131, 137 Native American culture, 119-120, 132-136 Museums and exploratoriums. See also individual Native Science Field Centers (program), 132-135 institutions and exhibits Native Waters (exhibit), 119-120 access issues, 120, 121, 122-127, 152 Nature centers, 1, 7, 28, 40, 174 Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50 New York Hall of Science, 37, 182 adult experiences, 147, 148, 152 North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, 131, 164 assessment of learning in, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, North Museum, 182 107, 112 NOVA scienceNOW program, 9, 11 connected learning experiences, 4, 162 cultural and political influences on science, 67 O cultural considerations, 120, 121, 122-127, 135 designing exhibits, 14, 15, 40, 52, 64, 83-87, 99, 112, Oglala Lakota College, 132 122-131, 152, 162, 182-183 Olstad, Roger, 167 diversity of staff, 121, 126 Ontario Science Center, 67 films, 81-82 Out-of-school-time programs generally, 1, 3, 16, 29, 88, 139, 140, 141, 166 assessment of, 114, 135, 179, 189-190 interactive exhibits, 40, 41-52, 65, 66, 130-131, 164, continuity with other venues, 139, 166 167-168, 185 coordination with formal curriculum, 176-179 interpretive materials, 40, 122, 129, 131 cultural elements, 132-135 215 Index

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number and type for adults, 148 evolution of, 143 strands framework, 146, 151 examples, 89-91, 132-135, 175, 177-179 time frame, 4 extended-day programming, 176 Project Exploration (program), 143, 145, 146, 159 generally, 1, 4, 16 Project FeederWatch (program), 21, 22-24, 25, 32 important elements, 66, 157 Project SEE (program), 153, 154, 158, 159 participant characteristics, 143 partnership opportunities, 176-179 roles that support learning, 66, 77 R and science identity, 142 self-contained, 176 Ramapo College of New Jersey, 153, 158 strands framework, 146 Randi Korn & Associates, 46 sustaining interest in, 88 Randol, Scott, 42 Reading, 2, 3, 7, 40, 54, 88, 94, 98, 140, 141, 162, 165 P Reasoning. See Scientific reasoning Reflection on science conversation and, 71 Pacific Science Center, 175, 181-182, 186 designing science experiences for, 13-14, 29, 38-39, Pajaro Valley Unified School District, 178-179 47 Parent-child interactions. See also Family settings strand 4, 27, 29, 38-39, 47, 55, 60, 71, 146 explanatory conversations, 73-76 Reginald Clark and Associates, 190 reinforcement of learning, 3 Reich, Christine, 130-131 resources to support, 74 Reiser, Robert, 65 undermining engagement, 74 Renninger, Ann, 87, 99 Pedretti, Erminia, 67 Restoring Environments and Landscapes (REAL), 89-91, Peer networks, 136 92 Perry, Deborah, 83, 84, 99, 100, 101 RMC Research Corporation, 58, 162 Pine Ridge Reservation, 132 Road Watch in the Pass (program), 150, 151, 159 Pittsburgh Children’s Museum, 74, 75-76 Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, 80 Planetariums, 2, 3, 15, 26, 56, 182 S Playing to learn computer games, 2, 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 16, 18, 106, 107, Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie, 134, 148, 149 109, 156 Salthouse, Timothy, 152 cultural issues, 123 Schaller, David, 6-7, 12 Price, Sabra, 167-168 Schauble, Leona, 73-74, 162 Prior knowledge and interest, building on, 5, 12, 13, Schaufele, Rob, 150 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, School science instruction. See Formal science learning 140, 162, 167 Schroeder, Melanie, 144 Program in Education, Afterschool & Resiliency, 190 Schwartzman, Gabe, 98-99 Programs. See also Out-of-school-time programs; specific Science. See also Culture of science programs cultural and political influences, 67 assessments, 4 social and cultural aspects, 19-25 choosing to participate, 4 Science Cafés, 1, 8, 9-11, 12, 18, 29, 67 cultural and diversity aspects, 4, 52, 143-146 Science centers, 2, 3, 28, 40. See also Nature centers; design, 4, 52-55, 152-153, 154 specific centers examples, 2, 4, 143-146, 150 Science identity building facilitators, 4, 148-149 adults, 30-31 Surrounded by Science 216

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effective strategies, 155 children and youth, 30-31, 173, 178 planning programs for, 151-154 conceptions of, 94 science identity building, 30-31 and deeper engagement with science, 30, 97-99 Serrell, Beverly, 88 design of learning experiences, 47, 48, 81-82, 95, 96- Service at Salado (program), 66 97 Sesame Street, 65 family values, 94-95 Sierra Club, 10 interest development and, 93-97 60 Minutes, 162 as interest driver, 95-97 Skeleton exhibit, 41-42 strand 6, 27, 30-31, 47, 48 Smithsonian Institution, 164 things to try, 100-101 Social interactions. See also Conversations and Science learning. See Informal science learning discussions; Parent-child interactions environments in citizen science, 65-66 Science Museum of Minnesota, 43, 44-46, 62, 81, 131 and cognition and learning, 14, 15, 17, 46, 66, 78-79, Science North, 162 83, 87, 93, 97, 122 Science Now, Science Everywhere (program), 163 cultural variation in beliefs, values and norms, 122 Science of Dragon Boats (exhibit), 129 in museum exhibits, 52, 65, 66, 122 Scientific practices. See also Culture of science in science, 15, 19-20, 30, 32 backyard research, 15-16, 21, 22-24, 25, 32 Spickelmier, Grant, 6, 7, 12 Cell Lab experience, 43-48, 52, 66, 107, 109 SRI International, 188 data collection and documentation, 22, 58, 110, 134, St. Louis Center for Inquiry in Science Teaching and 150, 179 Learning, 189, 190 interactions with people, 64 St. Louis Science Center, 48, 52, 53-54, 62, 78, 93, 109 LabVenture! program, 170-174, 179, 186 Storytelling, 56-60, 119 NSF evaluation framework, 110 Strands of science learning Scientific reasoning in assessments, 108-110, 179 conversation and, 66, 74 designing learning experiences, 31-32, 41-42, 47-48, designing activities for, 42, 47, 87 87 examples, 28, 92-93 framework, 26-31 interactive experiences, 41, 42, 66, 74 interconnectedness, 26, 92-93 naïve, 182 NSF evaluation framework compared, 109-110 NSF evaluation framework, 109 strand 1, see Interest and motivation opportunities for, 28, 47 strand 2, see Understanding content and knowledge process, 28-29, 47, 146 strand 3, see Scientific reasoning short-term vs. long-term experiences, 42 strand 4, see Reflecting on science strand 3, 27, 28-29, 42, 47, 87, 92, 110, 146, 151, strand 5, see Culture of science 173 strand 6, see Science identity building Scientists things to try, 32-33 cultural values, 15, 20-21 Summer programs, 4, 53, 104, 127, 131, 133 mentoring role, 65-66 Symington, David, 168 stereotypes, 19 Search for Life (exhibit), 37 Secaucus Senior Center, 154 T Secrets of Circles (exhibit), 124-126 Senior citizens Teachers and teaching cognition and learning, 152-153 field trip involvement, 167, 168-170 with disabilities, 129, 130-131, 152 in informal settings, 148-149 217 Index

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V professional development in informal settings, 180- 182 time available and quality of, 55 Vacations, learning-oriented, 4, 161 Tech Museum (San Jose, CA), 81-82 Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre, 180-181 Teenage Designers of Learning Spaces, 53-55, 109 Videos. See Films and videos Television Vietnamese Audience Development Initiative, 123-126 conversational interaction during shows, 65, 77, 78 Vietnamese culture, 122, 123-127, 129 educational shows, 2, 3, 7, 15, 16, 56, 57-59, 75, Visitor Studies Association, 115 141, 146, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 183 Volunteering, 2, 3, 4, 6, 31, 44, 45, 65-66, 91, 97, 133, effect on learning, 166 175 entertainment shows as learning venues, 29 extended learning experiences, 56, 57-59, 161, 164, W 165, 183 interactivity, 40, 56, 57-59, 65 Wartella, Ellen, 65 Thirsty Scholar Pub, 8, 9-11 WGBH public television outreach, 8, 9, 10 Thogersen, Erik, 50, 51, 52, 66, 112 Wiehe, Ben, 9-11, 12 21st Century Learning Centers, 143 Wind River Reservation, 132 Twin Cities Public Television, 56 WolfQuest (game), 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 18, 106, 107, 109, 156 U Y Understanding content and knowledge Yellowstone National Park, 6, 144-146 design of learning experiences and, 29, 41-42, 47, 52, Yelp, 164 86 examples, 27, 41-42 Z naïve understanding, 14, 38 persistence of, 42 Zoetrope exhibit, 73 prior knowledge and, 39-40 Zoos and aquariums strand 2, 7, 26-27, 41, 47, 52, 87, 110, 146, 179 after-school programs, 178 United Senior Center Hackensack, 154 assessment of learning experiences, 180-181 University of British Columbia, 180 diversity initiatives, 127 University of California at Santa Cruz, 188, 189 extended learning opportunities, 161, 183 University of Michigan, 182 generally, 2, 3 interactive components, 42 membership, 82 motivation for visiting, 82, 83, 93, 96-97 teacher training opportunities, 180 Surrounded by Science 218