programs, 4, 54, 114, 135, 189-190

resources for developing, 114

scale of outcomes, 104-105, 108

sharing, 114

social norms and, 109

standardized, 109, 111, 113

strands framework and, 108-110, 179

surveys, 23, 33, 106, 173

target audience, 105, 112

things to try, 32-33, 100, 113-114

tracking and timing methods, 107

Association of Science-Technology Centers, 189

Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 96, 101

Astronomy, 3, 15-16, 26

Augare, Helen, 133, 134

B

Backyard research, 15-16, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Bartlett, Karol, 162

Bay Area Discovery Museum, 164

Benbow, Ann, 151

Biodiesel fuel experiment, 98

Birdwatching, 133, 147, 149

House Finch Eye Disease Survey, 24

Project FeederWatch, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Seed Preference Test, 24, 25

Blackfeet Community College, 132, 133

Blackfeet Native Science Field Center, 132-136

Blackfeet Reservation, 132

Bonney, Rick, 22, 24, 205

C

Calabrese Barton, Angela, 121

California Bay Watershed Education and Training Program, 177

California Science Center, 31, 169

Callanan, Maureen, 73

Cell Lab (exhibit), 43-48, 52, 66, 107, 109

Cell phones, 163, 165

Center for Informal Learning and Schools, 189, 190

Center for the Advancement of Informal Science Education, 18, 34, 62, 80, 115, 159

Children and youth.

See also Out-of-school-time programs;

Parent-child interactions;

Playing to learn

adolescents, 142

cognitive development and learning, 140-141

metacognition, 38-39

opportunities for learning, 52-60, 140-146

science identity building, 30-31

Children’s Discovery Museum, 73, 122, 123-126, 127, 128, 129, 137

Children’s Museum of Indianapolis, 83-86, 162

Citizen science

activities, 2, 4, 22-24, 25, 35, 88, 149

social interactions, 65-66

Web site, 34

City University of New York, 88

Clara Maass Continuing Care Center, 154

Clubs. See Amateur science clubs

Cognition and learning

affect and, 82-83

barriers to, 54, 55

children and adolescents, 140-141

expert vs. novice, 13-14, 38-39, 60

intuitive ideas, 38, 39, 55, 140

older adults, 150-151

principles, 17-18

prior knowledge and, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, 162

social interaction and, 14, 15, 17, 46, 66, 78-79, 83, 87, 93, 97, 122

systematic approach to research, 13-17

Cohen Center for Interactive Learning, 170-174

Cohort effects, 155-157

Collaborations and linkages

for assessments, 114

challenges, 166

community partnerships in design and development, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184

informal and formal environments, 166-175, 178-182, 187-190

media and designed environments, 15-16, 44-46, 48, 61

research investments in, 187-190

scientific facility partnerships with schools, 170-174



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