Appendix A
Biographical Information on the Members of the Committee on Ensuring the Utility and Integrity of Research Data in a Digital Age

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

DANIEL KLEPPNER, Co-Chair, is professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and co-director of the MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms. He has made fundamental contributions to atomic physics and quantum optics. His research encompasses spectroscopic tests of extreme precision and novel quantum phenomena. He was director of the MIT-Harvard Center for Utracold Atoms from 2000 to 2006, and from 1987 to 2000 he was associate director of the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. In 1960, along with Norman Ramsey, he developed the Hydrogen maser, later used as an atomic clock of unprecedented stability. Applications of this early work range from coordination of radio signals in long-baseline radio astronomy, to satellite-based global positioning systems.

In the 1970s, Dr. Kleppner was a pioneer in the physics of Rydberg atoms, demonstrating the inhibition of spontaneous emission from them. This was a pioneering step in the development of cavity quantum electrodynamics, the study of the radiative properties of atoms in confined spaces. Kleppner’s investigations of Rydberg atom spectra in high electric and magnetic fields provided deep physical insight into the implications of classical chaos for quantum systems.

Professor Kleppner and MIT colleague Professor Thomas Greytak were among the first to search for quantum degeneracy effects in ultra-cold gases. After a 20-year-long quest, in 1998, they achieved Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in hydrogen. In the meanwhile, they developed tools instrumental to the 1995 discovery of BEC in alkali atoms by MIT alumni Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman, and MIT’s Wolfgang Ketterle. These include the technique of evaporative cooling, developed in collaboration with Harald Hess. Bose-Einstein



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Appendix A Biographical Information on the Members of the Committee on Ensuring the Utility and Integrity of Research Data in a Digital Age COMMITTEE MEMBERS DANIEL KLEPPNER, Co-Chair, is professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and co-director of the MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms. He has made fundamental contributions to atomic physics and quantum optics. His research encompasses spectroscopic tests of extreme precision and novel quantum phenomena. He was director of the MIT-Harvard Center for Utracold Atoms from 2000 to 2006, and from 1987 to 2000 he was associate director of the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. In 1960, along with Norman Ramsey, he developed the Hydrogen maser, later used as an atomic clock of unprecedented stability. Applications of this early work range from coordination of radio signals in long-baseline radio astronomy, to satellite- based global positioning systems. In the 1970s, Dr. Kleppner was a pioneer in the physics of Rydberg atoms, demonstrating the inhibition of spontaneous emission from them. This was a pioneering step in the development of cavity quantum electrodynamics, the study of the radiative properties of atoms in confined spaces. Kleppner’s inves - tigations of Rydberg atom spectra in high electric and magnetic fields pro - vided deep physical insight into the implications of classical chaos for quantum systems. Professor Kleppner and MIT colleague Professor Thomas Greytak were among the first to search for quantum degeneracy effects in ultra-cold gases. After a 20-year-long quest, in 1998, they achieved Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in hydrogen. In the meanwhile, they developed tools instrumental to the 1995 discovery of BEC in alkali atoms by MIT alumni Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman, and MIT’s Wolfgang Ketterle. These include the technique of evapo - rative cooling, developed in collaboration with Harald Hess. Bose-Einstein 2

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22 APPENDIX A condensates and fermionic degenerate samples of cold atoms represent a new form of matter at the lowest temperatures ever achieved. These species are now the subject of intense investigation in laboratories around the world. In addition to these research achievements, Dr. Kleppner has been a dedi - cated teacher at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and has served on numerous national committees charged with investigating key scientific or social issues. His honors include election to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the Academies of Science (Paris), and the Davisson-Germer Prize, Leo Szilard Lectureship Award and Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society, the Oersted Medal of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Frederick Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America, the Wolf Prize, and the 2006 National Medal of Science. PHILLIP A. SHARP, Co-Chair, is Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Much of Dr. Sharp’s scientific work has been con- ducted at MIT’s Center for Cancer Research (now the Koch Institute), which he joined in 1974 and directed from 1985 to 1991. He subsequently led the Department of Biology from 1991 to 1999 and the McGovern Institute from 2000 to 2004. His research interests have centered on the molecular biology of gene expression relevant to cancer and the mechanisms of RNA splicing; his landmark achievement was the discovery of RNA splicing in 1977. This work provided one of the first indications of the startling phenomenon of “discon - tinuous genes” in mammalian cells. The discovery that genes contain nonsense segments that are edited out by cells in the course of utilizing genetic infor- mation is important in understanding the genetic causes of cancer and other diseases. Dr. Sharp’s research opened an entirely new area in molecular biology and forever changed the field. For this work he shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. Richard Roberts who did work in parallel at Cold Spring Harbor. Dr. Sharp has authored more than 350 scientific papers and serves on many scientific committees, including the National Cancer Institute’s Advisory Board, which he chaired for two years (2000–2002). His work has been hon- ored with numerous awards including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, General Motors Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. Prize for Cancer Research, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, and Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sci - ences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. A native of Kentucky, Dr. Sharp earned a B.A. degree from Union College, Kentucky, and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana in 1969. He did his postdoctoral training at the California Institute of Technology, where he studied the molecular biology of plasmids from bacteria

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2 APPENDIX A in Professor Norman Davidson’s laboratory. Prior to joining MIT, he was senior scientist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Dr. Sharp is co-founder of Biogen, Inc., 1978, chairman of the Scientific Board (to 2002) and member of the board of directors. He is also co-founder of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals (2002), where he serves as chairman of the Scientific Board and as a member of the company’s board of directors. MARGARET A. BERGER is widely recognized as one of the nation’s lead- ing authorities on scientific evidentiary issues, in particular DNA evidence, and is a frequent lecturer across the country on these topics. She is a recipi- ent of the Francis Rawle Award for outstanding contributions to the field of postadmission legal education by the American Law Institute/American Bar Association for her role in developing new approaches to judicial treatment of scientific evidence and in educating the legal and science communities about ways to implement these approaches. Professor Berger serves as a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. She recently completed her service as a member of the National Commis - sion on the Future of DNA Evidence in which she served as the reporter for the Working Group on Post-Conviction Issues. She has been called on as a con- sultant to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, and has served as the Reporter to the Advisory Committee on the Federal Rules of Evidence. She is the author of numerous amicus briefs, including the brief written for the Carnegie Commission on the admissibility of scientific evidence in the landmark case of Daubert . Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. She has also contributed a chapter on “The Supreme Court’s Trilogy on the Admis - sibility of Expert Testimony” to the Reference Manual on Scientific Eidence (2nd ed. 2000). Her textbook, Eidence: Cases and Materials (9th ed. 1997) (with Weinstein, Mansfield, and Abrams), is the leading evidence casebook. Professor Berger has been a member of the faculty of Brooklyn Law School in New York since 1973, and holds the Suzanne J. and Norman Miles Chair. NORMAN M. BRADBURN, the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of the University of Chicago, serves on the faculties of the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, the Depart - ment of Psychology, the Graduate School of Business, and the college. He is a former provost of the university (1984–1989), chairman of the Department of Behavioral Sciences (1973–1979), and associate dean of the Division of the Social Sciences (1971–1973). From 2000 to 2004 he was the assistant director for social, behavioral and economic sciences at the National Science Founda - tion. Bradburn is currently a senior fellow at the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). Associated with NORC since 1961, he has been director of NORC and president of its board of trustees. A social psychologist, Bradburn has been at the forefront in developing

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2 APPENDIX A theory and practice in the field of sample survey research. He has focused on psychological well-being and assessing the quality of life, particularly through the use of large-scale sample surveys; nonsampling errors in sample surveys; and research on cognitive processes in responses to sample surveys. His book, Thinking About Answers: The Application of Cognitie Process to Surey Methodology (with Seymour Sudman and Norbert Schwarz; Jossey-Bass, 1996), follows three other publications on the methodology of designing and constructing questionnaires: Polls and Sureys: Understanding What They Tell Us (with Seymour Sudman; Jossey-Bass, 1988); Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Construction (with Seymour Sudman; Jossey-Bass, 1982; 2nd edition with Brian Wansink, 2004) and Improing Interiewing Method and Questionnaire Design (Jossey-Bass, 1979). Bradburn serves on the board of directors of the Chapin Hall Center for Children. He was chair of the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (NRC/NAS) from 1993 to 1998, and is past president of the American Association of Public Opinion Research (1991–1992). Bradburn chaired the NRC/NAS panel to advise the Census Bureau on alternative methods for conducting the census in the year 2000. The report, published as Counting People in the Information Age, was presented to the Census Bureau in October 1994. He was a member of the NRC/NAS Panel to Review the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Panel to Assess the 2000 Census. He is currently one of the domain chairs for the Key National Indicators Initiative at the National Academy of Sciences. Bradburn was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. In 1996 he was named the first Wildenmann Guest Professor at the Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden und Analyse in Mannheim, Germany. JOHN BRAUMAN was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1937. He attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (S.B., 1959) and the University of California at Berkeley (Ph.D., 1963). He was a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at University of California at Los Angeles, and then took a position at Stanford University where he is J. G. Jackson–C. J. Wood Professor of Chemistry Emeritus. He was department chair, associate dean for natural sciences, and has been associate dean of research since 2005. He also currently serves as the Home Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Brauman has received a number of awards including the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry, Harrison Howe Award, Guggenheim Fellowship, R. C. Fuson Award, Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award, James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences, Linus Pauling Medal, Willard Gibbs Medal, and National Medal of Science. He is a member of the National Academy of Sci- ences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,

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2 APPENDIX A and an honorary fellow of the California Academy of Sciences. He received the Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching from Stanford University in 1976. Dr. Brauman has served on many national committees and advisory boards. He was deputy editor for Physical Sciences for Science from 1985 to 2000 and is currently the chair of the senior editorial board. Dr. Brauman’s research has centered on structure and reactivity. He has studied ionic reactions in the gas phase, including acid-base chemistry, the mechanisms of proton transfers, nucleophilic displacement, and addition- elimination reactions. His work includes inferences about the shape of the potential surfaces and the dynamics of reactions on these surfaces. He has made contributions to the field of electron photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions, measurements of electron affinities, the study of dipole- supported electronic states, and multiple photon infrared activation of ions. He has also studied mechanisms of solution and gas-phase organic reactions as well as organometallic reactions and the behavior of biomimetic organo- metallic species. JENNIFER T. CHAYES is managing director of the new Microsoft Research New England lab in Cambridge, Massachusetts which opened in July 2008. Before this, she was research area manager for Mathematics, Theoretical Computer Science and Cryptography at Microsoft Research Redmond. Chayes joined Microsoft Research in 1997, when she co-founded the Theory Group. Her research areas include phase transitions in discrete mathematics and com - puter science, structural and dynamical properties of self-engineered networks, and algorithmic game theory. She is the co-author of almost 100 scientific papers and the co-inventor of more than 20 patents. Chayes has many ties to the academic community. She is affiliate professor of mathematics and physics at the University of Washington, and was for many years professor of mathematics at UCLA. She serves on numerous institute boards, advisory committees and editorial boards, including the Turing Award Selection Committee of the Association for Computing Machinery, the board of trustees of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, the advisory boards of the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science and the Miller Insti- tute for Basic Research in Science, the U.S. National Committee for Mathematics and the Committee on Assuring the Integrity of Research Data of the National Academies, the Advisory Committee on Women in Computing of the Association for Computing Machinery, the Leadership Advisory Council of the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology, and the Selection Committee for the Anita Borg Award for Technical Leadership. Chayes is a past chair of the mathematics section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a past vice president of the American Mathematical Society. Chayes received her B.A. in biology and physics at Wesleyan University, where she graduated first in her class, and her Ph.D. in mathematical physics

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2 APPENDIX A at Princeton. She did her postdoctoral work in the mathematics and physics departments at Harvard and Cornell. She is the recipient of a National Sci- ence Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship, a Sloan Fellowship, and the UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award. She has twice been a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Chayes is a fellow of the American Associa - tion for the Advancement of Science, and a National Associate of the National Academies. Chayes is best known for her work on phase transitions, in particular for laying the foundation for the study of phase transitions in problems in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science; this study is now giving rise to some of the fastest known algorithms for fundamental problems in combinato - rial optimization. She is also one of the world’s experts in the modeling and analysis of random, dynamically growing graphs—which are used to model the Internet, the World Wide Web and a host of other technological and social networks. Among Chayes’ contributions to Microsoft technologies are the development of methods to analyze the structure and behavior of various net - works, the design of auction algorithms, and the design and analysis of various business models for the online world. Chayes lives with her husband, Christian Borgs, who also happens to be her principal scientific collaborator. In her spare time, she enjoys overworking. ANITA K. JONES is a university professor and the Lawrence R. Quarles Profes- sor of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Virginia. She came to the University in 1988 to serve as chair of the Department of Computer Sci- ence. Professor Jones served as the director of defense research and engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense from 1993 to 1997, where she managed the department’s science and technology program. She has served on the boards of several government organizations including as the vice chair of the National Science Board. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the Defense Science Board, the Charles Starke Draper Foundation, the board of trustees of InQTel, the governing board of Science Foundation Arizona, and the MIT Corporation Executive Committee. Professor Jones is a fellow of several professional societies and she has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees by Carnegie Mellon University and Duke University. She has been awarded the Department of Defense Award for Distinguished Public Service, the Ada Lovelace Award from the Association of Women in Computing, and the Founder’s Award of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The U.S. Navy named a seamount in the North Pacific Ocean (51° 25′ N and 159° 10′ W) for her. LINDA P. B. KATEHI is the provost and vice chancellor for academic affairs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign and professor of electrical and computer engineering. She holds a joint appointment with the Program of

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2 APPENDIX A Gender and Women Studies at the University of Illinois. As a faculty member, Professor Katehi has focused her research on the development and characteriza- tion of three-dimensional integration and packaging of high-frequency circuits with particular emphasis on MEMS devices, high-Q passives, and embedded filters. She pioneered the development of on-wafer packaging for high-density, high-frequency monolithic Si-based circuit and antenna architectures that led to low-cost, high-performance integrated circuits for radar, satellite, and wireless applications. Her work in this area has led to numerous national and interna- tional technical awards and to distinctions as an educator. Professor Katehi holds 13 U.S. patents and has authored more 500 papers published in refereed journals and symposia proceedings. Professor Katehi is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of American Association ofr the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and a fellow of IEEE. She serves on many scientific committees including the Nominations Committee for the National Medal of Technology, the board of AAAS, the Kauffman National Panel for Entrepreneurship, the National Sci - ence Foundation (NSF) Advisory Committee to the Engineering Directorate, the National Research Council (NRC) Telecommunications Board, the NRC Army Research Lab Advisory Committee on Sensors and Electronics Division, the NSF Advisory Committee to CISE, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aeronautics Technical Advisory Committee, and the Depart - ment of Defense Advisory Group on Electron Devices. Professor Katehi earned her diploma degree from the National Techni- cal University of Athens, Greece, in 1977 from the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Following her undergraduate studies, she worked for 2 years as a senior engineer in the Naval Research Lab and joined the Univer- sity of California at Los Angeles as a graduate student in fall 1979, completing an M.S.E.E. in December 1981 and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1984. From 1984 to 2002 she was a faculty member of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where she served as the associate dean for academic affairs from 1998 to 2002. From 2002 until 2004 she served as the dean of engineering and as faculty member of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Purdue University. NEAL F. LANE is the Malcolm Gillis University Professor at Rice University. He also holds appointments as a senior fellow of the James A. Baker III Insti - tute for Public Policy, where he is engaged in matters of science and technology policy, and in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Prior to returning to Rice University, Dr. Lane served in the federal government as assistant to the president for science and technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Techology Policy from August 1998 to January 2001, and as direc - tor of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and member (ex officio) of the

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28 APPENDIX A National Science Board. Prior to joining NSF, Dr. Lane was provost and pro- fessor of physics at Rice University in Houston, Texas, a position he had held since 1986. He first came to Rice as an assistant professor in the Department of Physics and later became professor of physics and space physics and astronomy. He left Rice from mid-1984 to 1986 to serve as chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. In addition, from 1979 to 1980, while on leave from Rice, he worked at the NSF as director of the Division of Physics. Dr. Lane’s many writings and presentations include topics in theoretical atomic and molecular physics and science and technology policy. Dr. Lane has received numerous prizes and awards. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He also serves on several boards and advisory committees. Born in Oklahoma City in 1938, Dr. Lane earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Oklahoma. W. CARL LINEBERGER is currently serving as professor of chemistry at the University of Colorado. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1983. His work is primarily experimental, using a wide variety of laser-based techniques to study structure and reactivity of gas-phase ions. Recent studies have been directed toward elucidating the structure of transient reaction inter- mediates, to developing understanding of the gradual evolution of physical properties from an isolated molecule to a solvated species, and to real-time investigations of reaction dynamics. RICHARD LUCE is vice provost and director of libraries at Emory Univer- sity. He is responsible for managing the main library—including specialist libraries in business, chemistry, music and media, as well as the Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Books Library—and coordinating university-wide library policy with the directors of the health, law, theology, and Oxford College libraries. Prior to joining Emory, Mr. Luce was the research library director at Los Alamos National Laboratory (1991–2006). Known as an information technology pioneer and organizational innovator, he managed a world-class scientific research library and forged regional, national, and international pub - lic information and technology collaborations. In 1999 he was a co-founder of the Open Archives Initiative to develop interoperable standards for author self-archiving systems. In October 2003 he co-organized the Berlin Declara - tion on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, and in 2004, the Brazilian Declaration on Open Access. He holds numerous advisory and consultative positions supporting digital library development, electronic publishing, and scholarly communication. He was the senior advisor to the Max Planck Society’s Center for Information Management (2000–2006) and an executive board member of the National Information Standards Organization (1998–2004). He was the recipient of the 2005 Fellows’ Prize for Leadership at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the first ever awarded to a nonscientist.

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29 APPENDIX A Mr. Luce was the course director of the International Spring School on the Digital Library and E-Publishing for Science and Technology in Geneva and a founding member and chair of the Alliance for Innovation in Science and Technology Information. He received a Distinguished Performance Award from Los Alamos for his contributions supporting science and technology. Prior to Los Alamos, Mr. Luce held positions as the first executive director of the Southeast Florida Library Information Network, director of Colorado’s Irving Library Network, and assistant director of the Boulder Public Library in Colorado. He speaks extensively in the areas of digital libraries and scientific communication, quality and change management, and strategic planning. Luce holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of San Diego, a master’s degree in public administration from San Diego State University, and a master’s degree in library and information science from the University of South Florida. THOMAS O. MCGARITY is Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Endowed Chair at the University of Texas at Austin School of Law. He was articles editor of the Texas Law Review. Thomas McGarity has studied both administrative law and environmental law. He also teaches torts. He is currently serving as co-reporter for rulemaking on the American Bar Association’s restatement project of the Administrative Procedures Act and related statutes. He received his J.D. from the University of Texas. He has written three influential books: Workers at Risk (Praeger, 1993) (co-author), The Law of Enironmental Protection (West, 2nd ed., 1991) (co-author), and Reinenting Rationality: The Role of Regulatory Analysis in the Federal Bureaucracy (Cambridge University Press, 1991). His recent articles include “On the Prospect of Daubertizing Judicial Review of Risk Assessment” (Law & Contemporary Problems 2003). He currently serves as president of the Center for Progressive Reform. STEvEN M. PAUL is the executive vice president for science and technology and president of Lilly Research Laboratories (LRL), a division of Eli Lilly and Company. He also is a member of the corporate policy and strategy and opera - tions committees and the company’s senior management council, a group of top Lilly executives who implement corporate strategies, ensure corporate perfor- mance, and identify corporate issues and opportunities. In 2005, Dr. Paul was named Chief Scientific Officer of the Year at one of the annual pharmaceutical achievement awards. He joined Lilly in April 1993 as vice president of central nervous system discovery and decision phase medical research in LRL and was named vice president, therapeutic area discovery research and clinical investi - gation, in 1996. Dr. Paul became group vice president of therapeutic area dis - covery research and clinical investigation for LRL in 1998. Paul received a B.A. degree, magna cum laude with honors, in biology and psychology from Tulane University in 1972. He received an M.Sc. degree in anatomy and neuroanatomy

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0 APPENDIX A and his doctor of medicine degree, both in 1975, from the Tulane University School of Medicine. Prior to joining Lilly, Paul served as scientific director of the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); professor of psychiatry at Tulane University School of Medicine; and chief of the clinical neuroscience branch, as well as chief of the section on pre - clinical studies at NIMH. Dr. Paul is a member of various professional societies, and he was listed as one of the most highly cited neuroscientists in the world (1980–2000) by the Institute for Scientific Information. Dr. Paul serves on the editorial boards of numerous scientific journals and on several NIH extramural and intramural committees. Paul serves on the board of directors of the Lilly Foundation, the Foundation of the NIH, Butler University and the Indianapolis Zoological Society. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. TERESA A. SULLIvAN became provost and executive vice president for academic affairs at the University of Michigan in 2006. She is also professor of sociology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Prior to coming to the University of Michigan, Dr. Sullivan was executive vice chancellor for academic affairs for the University of Texas System, a position she held from 2002 until May 2006. In that role, she was the chief academic officer for the nine academic campuses within the University of Texas System. Her respon - sibilities included developing tuition-setting procedures, initiating and sup - porting educational and research collaborations among the various campuses, and developing external collaborations. Dr. Sullivan first joined the University of Texas at Austin in 1975 as an instructor and then assistant professor in the Department of Sociology. From 1977 to 1981, she was a faculty member at the University of Chicago. Dr. Sullivan returned to Texas in 1981 as a faculty member in sociology. In 1986, she was named to the Law School faculty as well. Dr. Sullivan also held several administrative positions at Texas including vice president and graduate dean (1995–2002), vice provost (1994–1995), chair of the Department of Sociology (1990–1992), and director of Women’s Studies (1985–1987). Dr. Sullivan’s research focuses on labor force demography, with particular emphasis on economic marginality and consumer debt. The author or co-author of six books and more than 50 scholarly articles; her most recent work explores the question of who files for bankruptcy and why. Dr. Sullivan has served as chair of the U.S. Census Advisory Committee. She is past secretary of the American Sociological Association and a fellow of the American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science. A graduate of James Madison College at Michigan State University, Dr. Sullivan received her doctoral degree in sociol - ogy from the University of Chicago. MICHAEL S. TURNER is the Bruce V. and Diana M. Rauner Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago. He was born in Los Angeles, California, attended University High School, received his B.S. in physics from

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 APPENDIX A the California Institute of Technology (1971) and his Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University (1978). He came to the University of Chicago in 1978 as an Enrico Fermi Fellow and joined the faculty in 1980. From 2003 to 2006, Turner served as the assistant director of the National Science Foundation for the Mathematical and Physical Sciences, and from 2006 to 2008 as chief scien - tist at Argonne National Laboratory. From 1997 to 2003 Turner was chair of the Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Chicago, and from 1998 to 2001 he was the first scien- tific spokesperson for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He was instrumental in establishing the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago in 2001. In 1983, with Edward Kolb, he established the Theoretical Astrophysics Group at Fermilab, which today is part of the larger Center for Particle Astrophysics at Fermilab. Turner is currently a member of the board of directors and the executive committee of the Fermi Research Alliance, which manages Fermilab for the Department of Energy. Since 1984 he has been on the board of trustees of the Aspen Center for Physics and from 1989 to 1993 served as its president. Turner is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Turner has been honored with the Helen B. Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society, the Halley Lectureship at Oxford University, the Klopsteg Lecture Award of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Quantrell Award for Excel - lence in Undergraduate Teaching at the University of Chicago and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Michigan State University. In 2006, he received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Caltech, and in 2009 he will give the Biermann Lectures at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching. Turner helped to pioneer the interdisciplinary field that has brought together cosmologists and elementary particle physicists to unravel the origin and evolution of the universe and to understand the unification of the fun - damental forces and particles of nature. His research focuses on the earliest moments of creation, and he has made seminal contributions to inflationary cosmology, particle dark matter and structure formation, the theory of big-bang nucleosynthesis, and the nature of dark energy that is causing the expansion of the universe to speed up. He believes that cosmic acceleration is the most profound mystery in all of science today, and he coined the term “dark energy.” Dark energy is the focus of his current research. Turner has served on and chaired numerous committees for the Depart - ment of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, the American Physical Society, and the National Acad- emies. The National Academy study Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos, which he led, identified opportunities at the intersection of astronomy and physics and

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2 APPENDIX A has shaped the science investment in the United States and elsewhere around the world. Turner is currently the chair of the Physics Section of the National Academy of Sciences and the chair-elect of the Division of Astrophysics within the American Physical Society. J. ANTHONY (TONY) TYSON is Distinguished Professor of Physics at the University of California at Davis and the director of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will look wide, fast, and deep, scanning the entire night sky every three nights for 10 years. Its mission will be to map the mysterious “dark matter” and “dark energy” that physicists say make up 95 percent of the universe. His research interests are in cosmology, dark matter, dark energy, observational optical astronomy, experimental gravitational physics, and new instrumentation. He received his Ph.D. from University of Wisconsin in 1967 and was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories from 1969 to 2003. His honors include election to the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences, the Aaronson Memorial Prize, and fellowships in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Physical Society. STEvEN C. WOFSY is the Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University. Dr. Wofsy holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Harvard University. He studies a variety of atmospheric gases using instruments aboard aircraft and also on the ground at long-term measurement sites. His research interests include undertaking theoretical and modeling studies to understand depletion of stratospheric ozone in polar regions, to assess future impacts of pollutants injected into the stratosphere, and to examine ecological and histori- cal factors affecting atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In 2001, Dr. Wofsy received the Distinguished Public Service Medal from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.