condensates and fermionic degenerate samples of cold atoms represent a new form of matter at the lowest temperatures ever achieved. These species are now the subject of intense investigation in laboratories around the world.

In addition to these research achievements, Dr. Kleppner has been a dedicated teacher at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and has served on numerous national committees charged with investigating key scientific or social issues. His honors include election to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the Academies of Science (Paris), and the Davisson-Germer Prize, Leo Szilard Lectureship Award and Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society, the Oersted Medal of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the Frederick Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America, the Wolf Prize, and the 2006 National Medal of Science.

PHILLIP A. SHARP, Co-Chair, is Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Much of Dr. Sharp’s scientific work has been conducted at MIT’s Center for Cancer Research (now the Koch Institute), which he joined in 1974 and directed from 1985 to 1991. He subsequently led the Department of Biology from 1991 to 1999 and the McGovern Institute from 2000 to 2004. His research interests have centered on the molecular biology of gene expression relevant to cancer and the mechanisms of RNA splicing; his landmark achievement was the discovery of RNA splicing in 1977. This work provided one of the first indications of the startling phenomenon of “discontinuous genes” in mammalian cells. The discovery that genes contain nonsense segments that are edited out by cells in the course of utilizing genetic information is important in understanding the genetic causes of cancer and other diseases. Dr. Sharp’s research opened an entirely new area in molecular biology and forever changed the field. For this work he shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr. Richard Roberts who did work in parallel at Cold Spring Harbor.

Dr. Sharp has authored more than 350 scientific papers and serves on many scientific committees, including the National Cancer Institute’s Advisory Board, which he chaired for two years (2000–2002). His work has been honored with numerous awards including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, General Motors Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. Prize for Cancer Research, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, and Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.

A native of Kentucky, Dr. Sharp earned a B.A. degree from Union College, Kentucky, and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in 1969. He did his postdoctoral training at the California Institute of Technology, where he studied the molecular biology of plasmids from bacteria

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