include everything from satellite images of clouds to the stomach contents of fish—and a large number of users present NOAA with substantial data management challenges. The report offers nine general principles for effective environmental data management, along with a number of guidelines on how the principles could be applied at NOAA. The principles and guidelines developed for NOAA are consistent with the accessibility and stewardship principles laid out in this study, and represent an example of how they apply to an agency with significant data management responsibilities in the earth sciences. The description of NOAA’s data management challenges also illustrates the challenges of providing access and stewardship for large, heterogeneous datasets.

Sciences and Security in a Post 9/11 World (2007)

Committee on a New Government-University Partnership for Science and Security

Synopsis: Explores various aspects of science and security, including access to data and movement of students and researchers across borders. Upholds the principle that the results of unclassified basic research should not be restricted.

Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (2006)

Committee on Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years, National Research Council

Synopsis: Examines the use of proxy evidence from multiple sources to reconstruct surface temperatures. In addition to its main conclusions about the reliability of multiproxy reconstructions, the report points out the differences in approaches to data availability in the fields covered, and that open access to data and methods will improve public confidence in the results of this research.

Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health (2006)

Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, National Research Council

Synopsis: Explores intellectual property (IP) issues related to genomic and protein research, identifies areas where emerging practices in patenting and sharing data or research resources might impede research, and recommends steps that federal agencies, research institutions, and companies should take to prevent IP protections from impeding future breakthroughs. Access to and sharing of research data are addressed in several recommendations.

Improving Business Statistics Through Interagency Data Sharing: Summary of a Workshop (2006)

Caryn Kuebler and Christopher Mackie, Rapporteurs, Steering Committee for the Workshop on the Benefits of Interagency Business Data Sharing, National Research Council

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