Index

A

Access to research data.

See also Open;

Sharing data

Bermuda statement, 60

confidentiality or privacy considerations, 5, 67

costs of limiting access, 70-71, 77-78

cross-discipline diversity in, 5, 27, 63-64, 88, 90, 136

cyberinfrastructure and, 61-62, 83-84, 87, 135

data mining tools, 20-21

data professional’s role, 90

definition of accessibility, 26

economic considerations, 26, 59, 69-70, 71-72, 85, 87, 89, 141

educational considerations, 70

federal policies, 48-49, 60-61, 62, 68-69, 74, 78-79, 82-83, 91-92, 116-117

geographic data and services, 75-76, 133-134, 135-136, 138

institutional and research sponsor responsibilities, 7, 87, 90-91, 116-117, 119

and integrity of data, 5, 26, 42, 46-47, 63, 64, 70, 81-82, 89, 137

international dimensions, 17, 35, 64, 66, 70, 75, 76-77, 79, 83-84

journal policies, 21, 38, 43, 61, 65, 78-79, 82-83, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 116-117, 135

legal issues, 67, 71, 75, 80-82, 85, 141

metadata and, 25, 26, 70, 85

methods or programs used to derive data, 6, 63-64, 81, 85, 89

national security issues, 5, 68-69, 83, 134, 136

OECD principles and guidelines, 59, 62

ownership issues, 5-6, 21, 73-79, 85-86, 134, 135-136, 137, 138

Paris Guidelines, 88, 89

principles for enhancing access, 6, 82, 84-86, 87, 88-90, 120

private/commercial interests, 6, 19, 26, 48, 69, 71-73, 86, 134-135

professional organizations and, 91, 116-117

public policy interests, 18, 71-73, 135, 141

publicly funded research, 6, 74, 76-77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92-93, 141

raw data, 80

recommendations, 6-7, 87, 88, 90, 91

and reproducibility, 81, 93

research field responsibilities, 87, 88-90, 136

researcher responsibilities, 7, 85, 86-87, 116-117, 136

Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 52-53

Amazon, 106

America COMPETES Act of 2007, 82

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 144-145

American Association of Universities, 118

American Chemical Society, 39

American Economic Review, 39, 65

American Geophysical Union, 38, 39



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Index A metadata and, 25, 26, 70, 85 methods or programs used to derive data, Access to research data. See also Open; 6, 63-64, 81, 85, 89 Sharing data national security issues, 5, 68-69, 83, 134, Bermuda statement, 60 136 confidentiality or privacy considerations, 5, OECD principles and guidelines, 59, 62 67 ownership issues, 5-6, 21, 73-79, 85-86, costs of limiting access, 70-71, 77-78 134, 135-136, 137, 138 cross-discipline diversity in, 5, 27, 63-64, Paris Guidelines, 88, 89 88, 90, 136 principles for enhancing access, 6, 82, 84- cyberinfrastructure and, 61-62, 83-84, 87, 86, 87, 88-90, 120 135 private/commercial interests, 6, 19, 26, 48, data mining tools, 20-21 69, 71-73, 86, 134-135 data professional’s role, 90 professional organizations and, 91, 116-117 definition of accessibility, 26 public policy interests, 18, 71-73, 135, 141 economic considerations, 26, 59, 69-70, publicly funded research, 6, 74, 76-77, 78, 71-72, 85, 87, 89, 141 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92-93, 141 educational considerations, 70 raw data, 80 federal policies, 48-49, 60-61, 62, 68-69, recommendations, 6-7, 87, 88, 90, 91 74, 78-79, 82-83, 91-92, 116-117 and reproducibility, 81, 93 geographic data and services, 75-76, 133- research field responsibilities, 87, 88-90, 134, 135-136, 138 136 institutional and research sponsor researcher responsibilities, 7, 85, 86-87, responsibilities, 7, 87, 90-91, 116-117, 116-117, 136 119 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 52-53 and integrity of data, 5, 26, 42, 46-47, 63, Amazon, 106 64, 70, 81-82, 89, 137 America COMPETES Act of 2007, 82 international dimensions, 17, 35, 64, 66, American Association for the Advancement of 70, 75, 76-77, 79, 83-84 Science, 144-145 journal policies, 21, 38, 43, 61, 65, 78-79, American Association of Universities, 118 82-83, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 116-117, American Chemical Society, 39 135 American Economic Reiew, 39, 65 legal issues, 67, 71, 75, 80-82, 85, 141 American Geophysical Union, 38, 39 

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 INDEX Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 101, 107, 112 research, 17-18, 20, 35, 63, 64, 66, 96, 101 Annals of Internal Medicine, 93 stewardship, 103, 113 Arabidopsis Information Resource, 30 Committee on Data for Science and Arts and Humanities Data Service (UK), 66 Technology, 84 arXiv publication repository, 102 Committee on Government Relations, 118 Association of American Universities, 91 Committee on Institutional Cooperation, 118 Association of Public and Land-Grant Condensed-matter physics, 45 Universities, 91 Confidentiality or privacy considerations, 5, Association of Research Libraries, 91 67, 140 Astrobiology, 28 Consolidated Appropriations Act Astronomical sciences, 14-15, 16, 17, 64, 66, of 2001, 82 95, 141 of 2008, 79 Automatic Plate Measuring Facility, 14 Copyrights, 73, 74-75, 76, 78, 79, 85, 100, 140-141 Cornell University, 102 B Cosmic Background Explorer, 14 Cosmic Background Imager, 14 Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, 76 Council of Graduate Schools, 55 Bell Laboratories, 45 Council of Science Editors, 37 Biomedical Informatics Grid, 61 Council on Government Relations, 91 Biomedical Informatics Research Network, Creative Commons, 76 20, 61 Cyberinfrastructure Biomedical research, 68, 86, 93. See also and access to data, 61-62, 83-84, 87, 135 Clinical and stewardship, 9, 95, 96, 99-106, 113 Bit Torrent, 89 Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 107, 113 D Boeing, 105 Boomerang (balloon-borne millimeter-wave Data, defined, 23 telescope), 14 Data Access Act of 1999, 80-81, 92 Data collections. See Databases Data Explorer program, 83 C Data management. See also Stewardship institutional plans, 92-93, 98, 110 Canadian Department of National Defence, principles and guidelines, 88-90, 133-134 105 training in, 56 CC0 protocol, 76 Data mining tools, 20-21 Cell Centered Database, 20 Data producers. See also Researchers Center for Astrophysics, 14 defined, 40 CERN (European Center for Nuclear integrity-related responsibilities, 40, 42 Research), 13, 16, 34 Data professionals Chaotic motion, 41 and access to data, 92 Charge-coupled devices, 11 and integrity of data, 5, 50, 57-58 Chemical crystallography, 66 researcher collaborations with, 57-58 China, Scientific Data Sharing Project, 84 responsibilities, 3, 50, 58 Climate sciences, 66, 71-72, 82, 96, 134 Data providers Clinical research, 2, 4, 47, 48-49, 141. See also defined, 41 Biomedical integrity-related responsibilities, 41, 42 Cloud computing, 61 Data users Collaborative defined, 41 data-sharing networks, 15, 17-18, 64, 84, and integrity of research results, 41, 42 111

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 INDEX E Databases and repositories. See also Stewardship; indiidual databases Earth Observing System, 17 access to, 73, 83 Ecological Society of America, 39, 111, 112, defined, 29 113 developmental questions about, 21 Economic issues, 21, 22, 26, 43, 44, 59, 69-70, disciplinary depositories, 27, 100, 102 71-72, 85, 87, 89, 98-99, 105-106, 113 integrity of data, 21, 46, 50 Economics research, 47, 50, 64, 65, 105-106 ownership issues, 73-74, 140-141 Educational considerations, 70 reference collections, 29, 30 Employment Responses to Global Markets research collections, 29, 30 data, 105-106 resource collections, 29, 30 Environmental sciences, 17, 104, 133-134, for supporting data, 89 137, 139 tools for building, 100-101 European Community Directive on the Legal Digital data. See also Research data; indiidual Protection of Databases, 75 disciplines European Southern Observatory, 64 ownership, 73 Experimental data, 1, 13, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23, projected growth, 12, 13 26, 27, 29, 35, 40, 42, 45, 64, 67, 109, quantity, 1, 11-12, 13, 29, 84-85 136 risks to reliability, 96-99 Extramural grants, federal policies on, 52-53 transfer rates, 11 trends, 14-15 units of size, 11, 12 F Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, 75, 140 Federal policies Digital networks, 83-84 on access, 48-49, 60-61, 62, 68-69, 74, 78- Digital technology 79, 82-83, 91-92 in astronomy, 14-15 on integrity, 52-53 challenges posed by, 1-2, 19, 22, 74-75 on stewardship, 79, 104-106, 113, 133-134, computing power, 11-12, 20 137 and copyrights, 74-75 Federation of American Societies for education impacts, 18 Experimental Biology, 38, 39 and integrity of data, 1, 3-4, 21, 33-34, 37, Fischer, Paul, 71-72 44, 46-50 Fluxes Over Snow Surfaces Project, 30 in neurosciences, 20-21 Food and Drug Administration, 48 public policy implications, 18 Fostering Integrity in Research, Scholarship, research impacts, 1, 12-18, 20-21, 34-35, and Teaching, 56 44, 51, 55-56, 57-58, 85, 139, 140 Freedom of Information Act, 80 sensors and sensor networks, 11, 16-17 simulations and mathematical modeling, 1, 17, 20 G and stewardship, 1-2, 19, 22, 27 Galaxy Redshift Surveys, 14 storage devices, 11 Galaxy Surveys, 14 Diversity of data GenBank, 3, 46, 47, 52, 83, 104 in collection types, 29, 30 Gene expression data, 20 cross-disciplinary, 27-28 General Accounting Office, 81 in origins, 28-29 Genomic data, 16, 20, 60-61, 69, 77-78, 95, DNA. See also Genomic data 96, 134, 136 “junk,” 41 Geographic data and services, 75-76, 133-134, 135-136 Georgia Open Records Act, 71 Geosciences, 98, 138

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8 INDEX GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Trial Register, 48 metadata and, 42, 46, 50 Global Biodiversity Information Facility, 84 open and public reviews, 46 Global Earth Observation System of Systems, in particle physics, 34-35, 47 84 peer review, 2, 3, 7, 22 n.17, 24, 33, 35, 39, Google, 106 42, 43-44, 46-47, 52, 55, 79, 133, 137 Government Accountability Office, 82 principle, 4, 51, 120 Government-Industry Data Exchange producer’s role, 40, 42, 116 Program, 105 provider’s role, 41, 42, 116 Grid computing, 61 quality control measures, 35, 44-50, 138 recommendations, 4-5, 54, 57, 58 and reproducibility of research results, 2, H 26, 29, 33, 45 researchers’ obligations, 26, 39-40, 45, 51- Health Insurance Portability and 54, 116, 119, 133 Accountability Act, 68, 110 standards, 25, 35-36, 44, 45, 50, 54-55, 56- Health records data, 49, 68 57, 138, 142 High-energy physics. See Particle physics threats to, 2-3, 19, 33-34, 39-40, 96-99 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 77 training for researchers, 4-5, 44, 54-56 Human Brain Dynamics Resource data, 105 user’s role, 41, 42, 116 Humanities research, 66 Interagency Working Group on Digital Data, Hwang, Woo Suk, 44 9, 107-108 Interdisciplinary research, 1, 6-7, 9, 17, 28, 44, 57, 60, 70, 141 I Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 72 IDEALS repository, 102-103 International Council of Scientific Unions, 84 Information Quality Act of 2001, 80, 81, 82, International dimensions of access, 17, 35, 64, 137 66, 70, 75, 76-77, 79, 83-84 Institute of Electrical and Electronics International Federation of Digital Engineers, 39 Seismograph Networks, 84 Institute of Medicine, 55 International Geophysical Year, 83 Integrity of research data International Nucleotide Sequence Database accessibility and, 5, 26, 42, 46-47, 63, 64, Collaboration, 84 70, 81-82, 137 International Virtual Observatory Alliance, 84 in clinical research, 2, 4, 47, 48-49, 141 Inter-University Consortium for Political and collective scrutiny of data and results, 41- Social Research, 99-101, 102, 113 43, 47 Intramural research, federal policies, 52-53 contextual documentation, 3, 42-43, 45, Invisible colleges, 28 46-47, 63-64 Ithaka, 112 data professionals’ responsibilities and roles, 5, 50, 57-58, 116 decentralized approach, 57 J defined, 2, 25-26 digital technology to enhance reliability, 1, Journal of Cell Biology, 35-37, 39, 40, 150-153 3-4, 21, 33-34, 37, 44, 46-50 Journals economic issues, 43, 44 access policies, 21, 38, 43, 61, 65, 78-79, economics research, 47, 50 82-83, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 135 federal policies, 52-53, 116, 137 confirmatory studies in, 65 inappropriate manipulation, 3, 5, 35-36, copyrights, 78-79 37, 38-39, 40, 44 data manipulation policies, 3, 5, 35-37, 38, journal policies, 3, 5, 35-37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 39, 40, 43 116 as data providers, 41

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9 INDEX N ethics and scientific misconduct policies, 38 National Aeronautics and Space integrity policies, 35-37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 56, Administration, 17, 52-53, 64, 105, 138 65 National Archives and Records letters requesting this study, 143-153 Administration, 135 open access, 46 n.16, 78-79, 83 National Association of State Universities and peer-reviewed, 43 Land-Grant Colleges, 118 responsibilities of, 119-120 National Center for Biotechnology stewardship role, 21, 106, 113, 117 Information, 95-96, 104 JSTOR, 112 National Commons and Marketplace in Geographic Information, 76 National Ecological Data Center, 112 L National Ecological Observatory Network, Laboratory Management Institute, 55 16-17 Large Hadron Collider, 13, 16, 34-35 National Institute for Technology and Liberal Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 13, 14, 15 Education, 103 Las Campanas Redshift Survey, 14 National Institute of Standards and Legal issues, 67, 71, 75, 80-82, 85 Technology, 52-53 Library of Congress, 112, 113 National Institutes of Health, 52-53, 54-55, 78, Licensing, 75-76, 77-78, 135-136 79, 82-83, 90-91, 99, 100, 102 Lick Observatory, 14 National Library of Medicine, 79, 83, 104 Life sciences, 23 n.18, 59, 60-61, 64, 66, 69, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric 77-78, 88, 95-96, 134, 136, 141 Administration, 104, 133-134 Lockheed Martin, 105 National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 64 National Postdoctoral Association, 55 National Research Council, 9, 59-60, 64, 67- M 69, 72, 75-76, 77-78, 80-81, 82, 98, 104, 108, 111 Manipulation of data, inappropriate, 3, 5, 35- National Science and Technology Council, 36, 37, 38-39, 40, 44 107-108 Mann, Michael, 71-72 National Science Board, 29, 30 Marine fisheries data, 139 National Science Foundation, 16-17, 24, 52, Medical College of Georgia, 71 82, 99, 100, 102, 104, 107 Merck, 86 National Security Decision Directive 189, Metadata 68-69 access issues, 25, 26, 70, 85 National security issues, 5, 68-69, 83, 134, 136 defined, 24 National Virtual Observatory, 15, 105, 138 importance, 42 Natural Environment Research Council (UK), and integrity of research data, 42, 46, 50 66 providers, 21 Nature, 37, 38, 46, 109-110 standards, 24 Network for Earthquake Engineering stewardship, 95, 110 Simulation, 16-17 Misconduct. See Research misconduct Neurosciences, 13, 20-21, 99, 105 Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, 89 New England Journal of Medicine, 39 Molecular Dynamics Simulation Data, 105 Moore, Gordon, 11 Moore’s law, 11, 96 O Multidisciplinary research, 28 myGrid, 61 Observational data, 2, 17, 22, 23, 26, 28, 33, 40, 42, 48, 64, 67, 106, 109

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0 INDEX Office of Management and Budget, 22 n.17, Proceedings of the National Academy of 52, 69, 80, 81, 82 Sciences, 37, 38 Office of Naval Research, 52-53 Processed data Office of Science and Technology Policy, defined, 25 36-37 integrity, 1, 25, 33-34 Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009, 79 Professional organizations, 91, 111-112, Open-access 117, 119-120. See also indiidual academic policies, 91 organizations corporate/private platforms, 86 Protein Data Bank, 30, 105 journals, 78-79, 91 Proteomics research, 77-78, 89, 134 public policies, 82-83, 85, 91 Public Library of Science (PLoS), 78-79 repositories, 83 Public policies on access, 52-53, 66, 78-79, Open-knowledge environments, 62-63 82-83, 133-134 Open-notebook science, 63 Public policy interests, 18, 71-73, 135 Open reviews, 46 Publicly funded research, 6, 74, 76-77, 78, 80, Open-source software, 62-63 82, 83, 84, 85, 92-93 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and PubMed, 60 Development (OECD), 59, 62, 84 Ownership issues Q academic research, 69, 77 copyrights, 73, 74-75, 76, 78, 79, 85, 100, Quality control and quality assurance, 35, 44- 140-141 50. See also Integrity of research data database protections, 73-74, 75, 76, 140-141 digital technologies and, 74-75 R fair use exceptions, 74 journals, 78-79 Raw data licensing, 75-76, 77-78, 135-136 access to, 15, 74, 80 patents, 6, 25, 69, 76-78, 85-86, 134 defined, 25 publicly funded research, 74, 76-77, 78 stewardship, 25, 45, 106 trade secrecy, 77 Raytheon, 105 Reagan, Ronald, 68 Recommendations P access to data, 6-7, 87, 88, 90, 91 integrity of research data, 4-5, 54, 57, 58 Palimpsest, 106 stewardship, 8-9, 110, 111, 113 Paris Guidelines, 88, 89 Remote sensing data, 40, 75, 138, 139 Particle physics, 12-13, 34-35, 42, 47, 64, 131 Reproducibility of research results Patents, 6, 25, 69, 76-78, 85-86, 134 access to data and, 81, 93 Peer review, 2, 3, 7, 22 n.17, 24, 33, 35, 39, 42, defined, 81 43-44, 46-47, 52, 55, 79, 133, 137 integrity of data and, 2, 26, 29, 33, 45 Pennsylvania State University, 71 Research Councils of the United Kingdom, 84 Physics, 27, 45, 102. See also Particle physics Research data. See also Digital data; indiidual Planck survey, 14 disciplines Plate tectonics, 41 definitions, 22-24 Portico, 106 Research Information Network (UK), 64, 66 Principles Research institutions and sponsors, access to data, 6, 82, 120 responsibilities of, 7, 9, 56-57, 87, integrity of data, 4, 51, 120 90-91, 100-103, 110, 112-113, 117, stewardship, 8, 109, 120 118-119, 139 Private/commercial interests, 6, 19, 26, 48, 69, 71-73, 86, 106, 134-135

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 INDEX Research misconduct in life sciences, 23 n.18, 59, 60-61, 64, 66, access to supporting data and, 63 69, 77-78, 88, 134, 136, 141 defined, 36-37 norm differences of research fields, 6-7, examples, 44, 45 63-64, 66, 88, 90 training, 52 in particle physics, 64 Researchers protocols and standards, 7, 83, 87, 88-90, access-related responsibilities, 7, 85, 86-87, 92, 139 116-117, 118, 136 public policies, 52-53, 66, 78-79, 82-83, collaborations with data professionals, 133-134 57-58 in social sciences, 65, 66, 68, 100-101, 135 integrity-related obligations, 26, 39-40, 45, UPSIDE principle, 64, 67-68, 86 51-54, 116, 133 Shelby, Richard, 80 professional standards, 54, 56-57 Simulations and mathematical modeling, 1, 17, stewardship role, 8-9, 45, 99-100, 109-112, 20, 22, 23, 28, 40, 42, 46, 61, 105, 106 117 SkyServer Web site, 14 training in conduct of research, 4-5, 44, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 3, 14-15, 46, 47, 95, 54-56, 118 105 R.J. Reynolds Co., 71 Social network modeling, 17 Rockefeller University Press, 35, 38 Social sciences, 22, 27, 65, 66, 68, 98, 100-101, Roles and responsibilities 135, 142 assigning, 115 Standards journals, 119-120 for access, 7, 83, 87, 88-90, 92 professional societies, 119-120 for integrity of research data, 25, 35-36, 44, research institutions, 118-119 45, 50, 54-55, 56-57 research sponsors, 119 for stewardship, 8-9, 111 researchers, 115-118 Stewardship of research data. See also Rural Economy and Land Use Program (UK), Databases 66 annotating data for long-term use, 8, 21, 22, 25, 95, 99, 106-107, 110 in astronomy, 95 S for broad research enterprise, 107-108 challenges, 8, 103 Sage, 86 collaborations, 103, 113 San Diego Supercomputer Center, 105 companies, 106 Schön, Jan Hendrik, 45 defined, 27, 95 Science, 38, 44, 144-149 disciplinary depositories, 27, 100, 102 Science Commons, 76 economic issues, 7-8, 21, 22, 98-99, 105- Seoul National University, 44 106, 113, 119 Sharing data. See also Access; Databases, ESA initiative, 112 Open exchanges of data, 105 in astronomy, 15, 64, 66 federal agencies, data centers, and digital barriers to, 1, 5-7, 19, 26, 28, 60, 63-70, 76, archives, 79, 104-106, 113, 117, 133- 85, 88, 135, 137, 139, 141, 142 134, 135, 137 benefits, 5, 20, 59-62, 70, 142 in geosciences, 98, 138 in biomedical research, 68, 86, 93 infrastructure and incentives, 9, 95, 96, in chemical crystallography, 66 99-106, 113 in climate sciences, 66, 71-72, 82, 134 institutions and research sponsors, 9, 100- collaborative efforts, 15, 17-18, 64, 84, 111 103, 110, 112-113, 117, 119, 139 contextual documentation, 65, 66, 67 international participation, 111 in economics, 64, 65 journals, 21, 106, 113, 117 in humanities, 66 in life sciences, 95-96 incentives for, 90-91 loss and underutilization problems, 96-99

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2 INDEX metadata, 95, 110 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, old vs. new data, 98, 138 102-103 oversight board, 111 University of Konstanz, 45 ownership issues, 9, 99 University of Minnesota, 56 principle for enhancing, 8, 109, 120 Utility of research data, defined, 27. See also professional societies and, 111-112, 117 Access; Integrity; Stewardship raw data, 25, 45, 106 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 52-53 recommendations, 8-9, 110, 111, 113 U.S. Department of Commerce, 52-53 researchers and, 8-9, 45, 99-100, 109-112, U.S. Department of Energy, 52-53, 83, 105 117 U.S. Department of Health and Human simulation-related models and software Services, 52, 55 tools, 28 U.S. Department of Veterans’ Affairs, 49 in social sciences, 98, 100-101 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 52-53, standards development, 8-9, 111 133 technology changes and, 1-2, 19, 22, 27 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 78 training in, 119 UPSIDE principle, 64, 67-68, 86 SumsDB, 20-21 Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and v Access Network (DataNet) program, 104-105 Virtual team science, 61 Visible and Infrared Telescope for Astronomy, 14 T Terminology W accessibility, 26 integrity, 25-26 WebCaret, 20-21 metadata, 24 Wellcome Trust, 61, 83 processed data, 25 Wikis, 46, 63 raw data, 25 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 14 research data, 22-24 World Data Center system, 83 standardization of, 49 World Intellectual Property Organization stewardship, 27 treaty, 75 Trace Archive, 95, 96 Training for researchers, 54-56 Tranche, 89 Y Two-degree–Field (2dF) Galaxy Redshift Survey, 14 Yale University, 150-153 U University of California at Davis, 55 University of California at San Diego, 105