TABLE 2-1 Analysis of Journal Policies

 

Nature

Science

PNAS

Data and methods access

 

 

 

Does the journal require that all data be made available on request to journal editors and reviewers?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Does the journal require deposition of data in a public repository?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Are authors required to provide algorithms or computer programs used in the collection, report, or analysis of data?

No

No

No

Image manipulation

 

 

 

Is image manipulation prohibited?

No

No

No

Does the journal require that image manipulation be reported?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Does the journal require that digital techniques be applied to the entire image?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Does the journal use software tests to detect image manipulation?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ethics and Scientific Misconduct

 

 

 

Is there a specified ethical statement?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Does the journal have a scientific misconduct investigation or reporting policy in place?

Yesg

Yesh

Yesi

KEY: PNAS=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; JCB=Journal of Cell Biology and other Rockefeller University Press; NEJM=New England Journal of Medicine; ACS=American Chemical Society journals; AGU=American Geophysical Union journals; FASEB=Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology journals; IEEE=Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers journals; ESA=Ecological Society of America journals; AER=American Economic Review

aFASEB is reviewing their policies as this goes to press.

b The authors have to provide the editors with their data and programs AFTER acceptance for publication (data and programs are then posted to a public repository); authors are not required to provide data and other information to reviewers.

cFor certain studies only.

d Only if the author wishes to cite the data must it be in a public depository. AGU does strongly encourage all authors to deposit their data but it is not a requirement for publication.

eEncouraged.

tigation of the matter (e.g., ORI [Office of Research Integrity]).”7 In practice, however, an editor may be reluctant to initiate action that could have disciplinary consequences.8

Another question is whether the high incidence of inappropriate manipulation of images in the above example reflects a lack of experience with applying

7

Editorial Policy Committee. 2006. CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Reston, VA: Council of Science Editors, p. 50.

8

D. Butler. 2008. “Entire-paper plagiarism caught by software.” Nature News 455:715.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement