over long time periods. Obviously not all data should be preserved, but deciding what to save and what to discard becomes more difficult as increasing quantities of data are generated. Because the future uses of data are difficult to predict, returns on investments in stewardship can be uncertain. Furthermore, in many fields of research, there is no consensus as to who should maintain large databases or who should bear the costs. These problems can be especially difficult for investigators involved in small projects, who can face great challenges in deciding which data will be useful, in documenting those data thoroughly for future uses, and in finding funds from limited budgets for data preservation.

The value of data for long-term use suggests the following general principle for the stewardship of data:

Data Stewardship Principle: Research data should be retained to serve future uses. Data that may have long-term value should be documented, referenced, and indexed so that others can find and use them accurately and appropriately.

Curating data requires documenting, referencing, and indexing the data so that they can be used accurately and appropriately in the future. Data stewardship must start at the beginning of the project, not partway through or at the end of the project.

Recommendation 9: Researchers should establish data management plans at the beginning of each research project that include appropriate provisions for the stewardship of research data.

Because data without accompanying information about how they were derived can be useless, arranging for preserved data to be annotated so that they retain their long-term value is among the most important tasks for researchers establishing a data management plan.

This recommendation is not meant to imply that individual researchers are responsible for ensuring indefinite preservation of their own data, but that they ensure that data that are judged to have potential long-term value are prepared and transferred to the appropriate archives or repositories. Researchers should work in partnership with their institutions, sponsors, and fields to formulate and implement their plans.

Researchers need to participate in the development of policies and standards for data annotation, preservation, and long-term access. Data need not be annotated in such detail that nonspecialists can immediately use them, but guidelines should exist for the degree of expertise required to use a data collection. Researchers also need to develop procedures for error reporting, tracking, and correction. These policies and standards will vary greatly from field to field because they depend on the nature and potential uses of data. Nevertheless,

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