80.5 Pb-acid

Denholm and Kulcinski 2003. 20 yr lifetime.


64.9 V redox



50.4 Pb-acid

Denholm 2004. With T&D. 20 yr lifetime, excludes the stored electricity. Assumes large system w/energy:power ratio of 8 hr. Pb-acid oversized 30% due to limited depth of discharge. VRB 75%, PSB 63%, Pb-acid 66% efficient.


32.6 PSB



40.2 V redox


Note: a-Si, amorphous silicon; BES, battery energy storage; CAES, compressed air energy storage; CCS, carbon capture and storage; CIGS, copper indium gallium selenide; FGC, flue gas clean-up; FGD, flue gas desulphurization; LEBS, low emission boiler system; mc-Si, multicrystalline silicon; MEA, monoethanolamine; PB-acid, lead acid; pc-Si, polycrystalline silicon; PHS, pumped hydro storage; PSB, sodium-bromide/sodium-polysulfide battery; sc-Si, single-crystalline silicon; SCR, selective catalytic reduction; T&D, transmission and distribution; V redox, vanadium acid; VRB, vanadium redox battery. All studies listed use LCA method. Not all studies are comparable. Denholm (2004) includes all life-cycle costs plus T&D emissions in LCA (most LCAs do not include T&D).

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