D
Description of State Renewables Portfolio Standards

TABLE D.1 Description of State Renewables Portfolio Standards

State

Amount

Year

Description

Arizona

15%

2025

The Arizona Corporation Commission introduced new renewable energy standards in 2006. Customers will face a slightly higher Environmental Portfolio Surcharge to offset the cost of compliance. If a utility does not meet the standard, the Commission may assess a penalty for non-compliance. The new rules also require a growing percentage of the total resource portfolio to come from distributed generation. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include electricity produced from qualifying biogas, hydropower, fuel cells that use only renewable fuels, geothermal, hybrid wind and solar, landfill gas, solar, and wind.

California

20%

2010

On September 26, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 107, which requires California’s three major utilities—Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern Edison, and San Diego Gas & Electric—to produce at least 20 percent of their electricity using renewable sources by 2010. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include biomass, solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, fuel cells using renewable fuels, small hydroelectric, digester gas, municipal solid waste conversion, landfill gas, ocean wave, ocean thermal, and tidal current.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 345
D Description of State Renewables Portfolio Standards TABLE D.1 Description of State Renewables Portfolio Standards State Amount Year Description Arizona 15% 2025 The Arizona Corporation Commission introduced new renewable energy standards in 2006. Customers will face a slightly higher Environmental Portfolio Surcharge to offset the cost of compliance. If a utility does not meet the standard, the Commission may assess a penalty for non-compliance. The new rules also require a growing percentage of the total resource portfolio to come from distributed generation. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include electricity produced from qualifying biogas, hydropower, fuel cells that use only renewable fuels, geothermal, hybrid wind and solar, landfill gas, solar, and wind. California 20% 2010 On September 26, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 107, which requires California’s three major utilities—Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern Edison, and San Diego Gas & Electric—to produce at least 20 percent of their electricity using renewable sources by 2010. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include biomass, solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, fuel cells using renewable fuels, small hydroelectric, digester gas, municipal solid waste conversion, landfill gas, ocean wave, ocean thermal, and tidal current. continued 

OCR for page 345
Electricity from Renewable Resources  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Colorado 20% 2020 On March 27, 2007, Governor Bill Ritter signed House Bill 1281, which increased Colorado’s previous renewable portfolio standard. Under the new standard, large investor-owned utilities are required to produce 20 percent of their energy from renewable resources by 2020, 4 percent of which must come from solar-electric technologies. HB 1281 requires municipal utilities and rural electric providers to provide 10 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydroelectric. Connecticut 23% 2020 On June 4, 2007, Governor M. Jodi Rell signed House Bill 7432, which expanded the state’s previous renewable portfolio standard. HB 7432 requires that 27 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable sources by 2020. The law includes standards for three classes of renewables. By 2020, 20 percent of the renewables must be from Class I, 3 percent must be from Class I or II, and 4 percent must be from Class III. Class I sources include solar, wind, new sustainable biomass, landfill gas, fuel cells (using renewable or non-renewable fuels), ocean thermal power, wave or tidal power, low-emission advanced renewable energy conversion technologies, and new run-of-the-river hydropower facilities with a maximum capacity of five megawatts. Class II sources include trash-to-energy facilities, biomass facilities not included in Class I, and certain hydropower facilities. Class III sources include customer-sited combined heat and power systems with a minimum operating efficiency of 50 percent installed at commercial or industrial facilities on or after January 1, 2006; electricity savings from conservation and load management programs that started on or after January 1, 2006; and systems that recover waste heat or pressure from commercial and industrial processes installed on or after April 1, 2007.

OCR for page 345
Appendix D  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description District of 11% 2022 On January 19, 2005, the Council of the District of Columbia Columbia enacted Bill A15-755, creating a renewable portfolio standard that requires 11 percent of the electricity sold in the District to come from renewable sources by 2022. The standard includes two tiers. Tier-one renewable resources include solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, wastewater-treatment gas, geothermal, ocean (mechanical and thermal), and fuel cells fueled by tier one resources. Tier-two renewable resources include hydropower (other than pumped-storage generation) and municipal solid waste. The standard calls for an additional 0.386 percent of the state’s renewable energy to come from solar energy by 2022. Delaware 20% 2019 On July 24, 2007, Governor Ruth Ann Minner signed Senate Bill 19, which expanded the state’s previous renewable portfolio standard to require that 2 percent of the state’s electricity supply come from solar photovoltaics by 2019, in addition to 18 percent from other renewable sources by the same date. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, ocean tidal, ocean thermal, fuel cells powered by renewable fuels, hydroelectric facilities with a maximum capacity of 30 megawatts, sustainable biomass, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas. Hawaii 20% 2020 On June 2, 2004, Governor Linda Lingle enacted Senate Bill 2474, which requires the state’s public utilities to provide 20 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, solar, ocean thermal, wave, and biomass resources. Iowa 105 In 1983, Iowa enacted the Iowa Alternative Energy Production MW law. The law requires the state’s two investor-owned utilities— MidAmerican Energy and Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light—to contract for a combined total of 105 megawatts of their generation from renewable-energy resources, including small hydropower facilities. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include photovoltaics, landfill gas, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, municipal solid waste, and anaerobic digestion. continued

OCR for page 345
Electricity from Renewable Resources  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Illinois 25% 2025 On August 28, 2007, Governor Rod Blagojevich of Illinois signed into law Public Act 095-0481, which sets a statewide Renewable Energy Standard and an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard. Under the RES, utilities in Illinois must produce a certain percentage of their power from renewable sources, starting with 2 percent in 2008 and increasing to 25 percent by 2025. Seventy-five percent of the electricity used to meet the renewable standard must come from wind power generation; other eligible electricity resources include solar, biomass, and existing hydropower sources. The law also includes an efficiency standard that requires utilities to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures to reduce electric usage by 2 percent of demand by 2015. Maine 10% 2017 On September 28, 1999, Maine’s Public Utilities Commission adopted a renewable portfolio standard, requiring that 30 percent of Maine’s power come from renewable sources by 2000. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include fuel cells, tidal power, solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and generators fueled by municipal solid waste in conjunction with recycling. In June 2006, the state adopted a renewable portfolio goal to increase new renewable energy capacity by 10 percent by 2017. “New” renewable energy sources include those placed into service after September 1, 2005. In 2007 the state updated the 2006 goal and made it a mandatory target. Resources that satisfy the new capacity requirement cannot also be used to satisfy the 30 percent portfolio requirement. Maryland 9.5% 2022 On April 24, 2007, Governor Martin O’Malley signed Senate Bill 595, which expanded Maryland’s existing renewable portfolio standard to require that 2 percent of the state’s electricity supply come from solar sources by 2022, in addition to 7.5 percent from other renewable sources by the same date. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, qualifying biomass, methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials in a landfill or wastewater treatment plant, geothermal, ocean, including energy from waves, tides, currents, and thermal differences, a fuel cell that produces electricity from qualifying biomass or methane, and small hydroelectric power plants.

OCR for page 345
Appendix D  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Massachusetts 4% 2009 In April 2002, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) adopted a previously outlined renewable portfolio standard. The regulations require that 4 percent of the state’s electricity supply come from new renewable sources by 2009. Sources that count toward the standard include solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave, tidal, fuel cells using renewable fuels, landfill gas, and low emission advanced technology biomass. The system must have been installed after December 31, 1997, for the source to qualify as “new.” After 2009, the minimum renewable standard shall increase by 1 percent per year until the DOER suspends the annual increase. The minimum renewable standard may at no time decrease below the percentage in effect at the time a suspension is implemented. Minnesota 25% 2025 On February 22, 2007, Governor Tim Pawlenty signed into law Senate Bill 4, which mandates that 25 percent of Minnesota’s power come from renewable sources by 2025. Xcel Energy, which currently generates about half of the state’s electricity, will be required to produce 30 percent of its power from renewable sources by 2020. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include solar, wind, small hydroelectric power plants, hydrogen generated from renewable resources, and biomass from qualifying resources. Missouri 11% 2020 On June 25, 2007, Governor Matt Blunt signed into law Senate Bill 54, which created a renewable energy objective for the state. The bill requires every utility to make a “good-faith effort” to supply 11 percent of their electricity with renewable sources by 2020. Sources of energy that count toward the objective include solar, wind, hydropower, hydrogen from renewable resources, and biomass. Utilities can also earn credit toward the objective through energy efficiency measures that include utility and consumer efforts to reduce the consumption of electricity. continued

OCR for page 345
Electricity from Renewable Resources 0 TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Montana 15% 2015 On April 28, 2005, Governor Brian Schweitzer signed into law Senate Bill 415, the Montana Renewable Power Production and Rural Economic Development Act, which established a renewable energy portfolio standard for the state. SB 415 mandates that 15 percent of the state’s energy come from renewable sources by 2015, and for each year thereafter. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, solar, geothermal, existing hydroelectric projects, landfill or farm- based methane gas, wastewater-treatment gas, low-emission, nontoxic biomass, and fuel cells where hydrogen is produced with renewable fuels. New 16% 2025 On May 11, 2007, Governor John Lynch signed into law Hampshire House Bill 873, the Renewable Energy Act, which establishes a renewable energy portfolio standard for the state. HB 873 mandates that 25 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable sources by 2025, a goal Governor Lynch had previously set for New Hampshire. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen derived from biomass fuels or methane gas, ocean thermal, wave, current, tidal energy, methane gas, eligible biomass technologies, and existing small hydroelectric sources. New Jersey 22.5% 2021 On April 12, 2006, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (BPU) approved new regulations that expanded the state’s renewable portfolio standard. The BPU decision requires utilities produce 22.5 percent of their electricity from renewable sources, at least 2 percent of which must come from solar sources. Sources of energy that count toward the remainder of the standard include solar, wind, wave, tidal, geothermal, methane gas captured from a landfill, fuel cells powered by renewable fuels, electricity generated by the combustion of gas from the anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge at a biomass generating facility, and hydropower. New Mexico 20% 2020 On March 5, 2007, Governor Bill Richardson signed into law Senate Bill 418, which established a renewable portfolio for the state. SB 418 mandates that by 2020, 20 percent of an electric utility’s power come from renewable sources. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, fuel cells that are not fossil fueled, and qualifying biomass resources.

OCR for page 345
Appendix D  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Nevada 20% 2015 On June 7, 2005, the Nevada Governor Kenny Guinn signed into law Assembly Bill 3, expanding Nevada’s previous renewable portfolio standard. The updated standard requires that 20 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable energy sources by 2015, and for each year thereafter. Of the 20 percent, not less than 5 percent must be generated from solar renewable energy systems. Utilities can also earn credit for up to 25 percent of the standard through energy efficiency measures. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include biomass, fuel cells, geothermal, solar, waterpower, and wind. New York 24% 2013 On September 22, 2004, The New York Public Service Commission adopted a renewable portfolio standard. The standard requires that 25 percent of the state’s electricity come from renewable sources by 2013. The standard identifies two tiers of eligible resources, a “Main Tier” and a “Customer-Sited Tier.” The Main Tier is mandatory and is to account for 24 percent of the standard. Eligible sources include biogas, biomass, liquid biofuel, fuel cells, hydroelectric, solar, ocean or tidal power, and wind. The Customer-Sited Tier will make up the remaining 1 percent of renewable energy sales and is to come from voluntary green market programs. Sources of energy that count toward the Customer-Sited Tier include fuel cells, solar, and wind resources. continued

OCR for page 345
Electricity from Renewable Resources  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description North Carolina 12.5% 2021 On August 20, 2007, Governor Mike Easley of North Carolina signed into law S.L. 2007-397, which establishes a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard for the state. Under the law, by 2021 electric public utilities must meet 12.5 percent of retail electricity demand through renewable energy or energy efficiency measures, and electric membership corporations and municipalities that sell electric power in the state would have to meet a standard of 10 percent by 2018. Resources that can be used to meet the standard include solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, ocean current or wave energy, biomass resources, and energy efficiency measures. The law also includes provisions to encourage the use of solar energy, swine and poultry wastes, as well as implementation of energy efficiency programs. Oregon 25% 2025 On June 6, 2007, Governor Ted Kulongoski signed Senate Bill 838, adopting a renewable electricity portfolio standard for the state. SB 838 requires the state’s largest utilities to meet 25 percent of their electric load with new renewable energy sources by 2025. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, solar, wave, geothermal, biomass, [and] new hydro or efficiency upgrades to existing hydro facilities. Pennsylvania 18% 2020 On December 16, 2004, Governor Edward Rendell signed into law Pennsylvania’s Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, requiring that qualified power sources provide 18.5 percent of Pennsylvania’s electricity by 2020. There are two tiers of qualified sources that may be used to meet the standard. Tier- one sources must make up 8 percent of the portfolio, and include wind, solar, coalmine methane, small hydropower, geothermal, and biomass. Solar sources must provide 0.5 percent of generation by 2020. Tier-two sources make up the remaining 10 percent of the portfolio, and include waste coal, demand side management, large hydropower, municipal solid waste, and coal integrated gasification combined cycle.

OCR for page 345
Appendix D  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Rhode Island 15% 2020 On June 29, 2004, Governor Donald Carcieri signed the Clean Energy Act, requiring state electricity retailers to derive at least 3 percent of the electricity they sell in state from renewable energy by December 31, 2006. The percentage of renewable energy required will then rise 1 percent per year through 2020, though the Rhode Island Public Utility Commission (PUC) is authorized to revise the schedule after 2013. Existing renewable resources may only contribute 2 percent of the required amount of renewables in any year; the rest must be from new renewable energy production. Sources of energy that count towards the standard include direct solar radiation, wind, movement or the latent heat of the ocean, the heat of the earth, small hydroelectric facilities, eligible biomass, and fuel cells using renewable resources. Texas 5,880 2015 On August 1, 2005, Governor Rick Perry signed a bill increasing MW the amount of renewable generation required in the state. The law requires that 5,880 MW of new renewable generation be built in the state by 2015, which will meet about 5 percent of the state’s projected electricity demand. The legislation also sets a cumulative target of installing 10,000 MW of renewable generation capacity by 2025. In an effort to diversify the state’s renewable generation portfolio, the measure also includes a requirement that the state must meet 500 MW of the 2025 target with non-wind renewable generation. continued

OCR for page 345
Electricity from Renewable Resources  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Vermont 10% 2013 On June 14, 2005, Governor Jim Douglas signed a renewable portfolio standard into law, requiring renewable generation to equal incremental load growth between 2005 and 2012, but not requiring utilities to hold renewable energy credits equal to renewable generation. If utilities have not met this requirement, the state will instate an RPS [renewables portfolio standard] equal to the percentage of load growth between 2005 and 2012. If the state experiences 7 percent load growth, but utilities have not obtained 7 percent of their electricity from eligible renewables by 2012, the state will adopt an RPS of 7 percent. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include wind, solar, small hydropower methane from landfill gas, anaerobic digesters, and sewage-treatment facilities, while excluding municipal solid waste. Vermont utilities are permitted to build generation capacity out of state to comply with the mandate. On March 20, 2008, Governor Jim Douglas signed the Energy Efficiency and Affordability Act of 2008, which established a renewable energy goal for the state. The law sets a goal of producing 25 percent of the energy consumed in the state from renewable sources, particularly Vermont’s farms and forests, by 2025. Virginia 12% 2022 On April 11, 2007, Governor Tim Kaine signed Senate Bill 1416, which established a voluntary renewable portfolio goal. The standard sets a renewable energy target of 12 percent of base year sales by 2022. The standard targets are defined as percentages of 2007 (the “base year”) electricity sales minus the average annual percentage of power supplied from nuclear generators between 2004 and 2006. A utility may participate in the voluntary RPS program if it demonstrates that it has a reasonable expectation of achieving the 12 percent target in 2022. Sources of energy that count toward the target include solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, wave, tidal, and biomass energy. Wind and solar receive a double credit toward RPS goals.

OCR for page 345
Appendix D  TABLE D.1 Continued State Amount Year Description Washington 15% 2020 On November 7, 2006, Washington state voters approved ballot initiative 937, setting renewable energy standards for utility companies in the state. The measure requires all utilities serving 25,000 people or more to produce 15 percent of their energy using renewable sources by 2020. Such sources include wind, solar, and tidal power as well as landfill-methane capture. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include water, wind, solar, geothermal, landfill gas, wave, ocean, tidal power, gas from sewage treatment facilities, biodiesel fuel that is not derived from crops raised on land cleared from old growth or first-growth forests, and qualifying biomass resources. Wisconsin 10% 2015 On March 17, 2006, Governor Jim Doyle signed Senate Bill 459, the Energy Efficiency and Renewables Act, which increased the state’s previous renewable portfolio standard. The revised standard requires utilities to produce 10 percent of their electricity from renewable energy sources by 2015. Sources of energy that count toward the standard include solar, wind, waterpower, biomass, geothermal technology, tidal or wave action, and fuel cell technology that uses qualified renewable fuels. Sources: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website, available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/ states/maps/renewable_portfolio_states.cfm, and the Pew Climate website, available at http://www.pewclimate.org/what_s_being_ done/in_the_states/rps.cfm.

OCR for page 345