FIGURE F.1 Range of life-cycle CO2 equivalent emissions from various technologies for generating electricity from coal.

FIGURE F.1 Range of life-cycle CO2equivalent emissions from various technologies for generating electricity from coal.

Source: Based on data compiled from Denholm (2004), Hondo (2005), Odeh and Cockerill (2008), Spath and Mann (2004), Spath et al. (1999), and White (1998).

plants.) A hypothetical U.K. IGCC plant with carbon capture via selexol had a value of 167 g CO2e/kWh (Odeh and Cockerill, 2008). Two hypothetical U.S. and U.K. average coal plants with carbon capture via MEA emit approximately 250 g CO2e/kWh (Odeh and Cockerill, 2008; Spath and Mann, 2004). The lowest value of 43 g CO2e/kWh is from a hypothetical coal plant co-fired with biomass residues (Spath and Mann, 2004). However, this estimate did not account for CO2 emissions associated with the production, regeneration, or disposal of MEA.

Because MEA is highly reactive with SO2, Odeh and Cockerill (2008) also evaluated a pulverized-coal plant with CCS, but without flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to evaluate how the life-cycle emissions of CO2 would be affected by the interaction of the MEA with SO2. Under this scenario significantly more MEA would be required, and because of the extra emissions associated with producing



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