• For biomass-based liquid fuels, estimate the full fuel-cycle input—for example, energy, water, fertilizer, and land—needed to grow, collect and harvest, and process and convert the feedstock into a unit of fuel output. As part of its effort, the panel would also describe the implications for land use, agricultural practices, prices, externalities (such as implications for the environment), and other factors that it believes are important.

  • For liquid fuels from coal, estimate the full fuel-cycle requirements—for example, mining, transport, and water—per unit of fuel produced.

  • Estimate capital and operating costs per unit of output and total cost per unit of output. Costs per unit of output should be calculated on a consistent and comparable basis.

  • Estimate full fuel-cycle environmental emissions per unit of fuel output—for example, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, criteria pollutants, heavy metals—and land, water, and other effects identified by the panel that should be included.

It is expected that the panel would need to consider those technologies in the context of and in competition with other fuels that may enter the transportation sector during the periods examined by the panel, such as hydrogen, natural gas, electricity to power hybrid vehicles, reformulated gasoline, and petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel. The Committee on America’s Energy Future, by drawing on existing National Academies and other recent comprehensive energy studies, will address the state of technology for hydrogen-fueled and hybrid electric vehicles.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement