TABLE H.4 Estimated Costs of Transportation for Delivery of Cellulosic Feedstocks

Type of Feedstock

Type of Cost

Cost per Ton (cited $)

Cost per Ton (2007$)

Reference

Corn stover

Per ton

8.85

12.5

English et al. (2006)

Corn stover

Per ton

10.25

27

Hess et al. (2007)

Corn stover

DVCa

0.15

0.35

Kaylen et al. (2000)

Corn stover

Max DVC for positive NPV

0.28

0.66

Kaylen et al. (2000)

Corn stover

Per ton

10.8

10.8

Perlack (2007)

Corn stover

Per ton

13

31

Aden et al. (2002)

Corn stover

Per ton

4.2–10.5

11–27.7

Perlack and Turhollow (2002)

Corn stover

DVC

0.08–0.29

0.17–0.63

Kumar et al. (2005)

 

DFCb

4.5

9.8

 

 

DFC range

0–6

0–13.3

 

Corn stover

DVC

0.18

0.32

Searcy et al. (2007)

 

DFC

4

7.3

 

Corn stover

DVC

0.16

0.38

Kumar et al. (2003)

 

DFC

3.6

8.6

 

Corn stover

DVC

 

 

Petrolia (2008)

 

0-25 miles

0.13–0.23

0.13–0.23

 

 

25-100 miles

0.10–0.19

0.10–0.19

 

 

>100 miles

0.09–0.16

0.09–0.16

 

 

DFC square bales

1.70

1.70

 

 

DFC round bales

3.10

3.10

 

Corn stover

Per ton

10.9

13.8

Vadas et al. (2008)

Switchgrass

Per ton

14.75

14.75

Duffy (2007)

Switchgrass

Per ton

19.2–23

27–32.4

Kumar and Sokhansanj (2007)

Switchgrass

Per ton

13

28

Perrin et al. (2008)

Switchgrass

Per ton

10.9

13.8

Vadas et al. (2008)

Switchgrass or Miscanthus

Per ton for 50 miles

7.9

17.1

Khanna et al. (2008)

Nonspecific

Per ton

7.4–19.3

13.7–35.6

Mapemba et al. (2007)

Nonspecific

Per ton

14.5

31.5

Mapemba et al. (2008)

Woody biomass

Per ton

 

11–22

Summit Ridge Investments (2007)

Note: Transportation costs were updated by using USDA-NASS agricultural-fuel prices from 1999 to 2007 (USDA-NASS, 2007a,b).

aDVC, distance variable cost, per ton per mile.

bDFC, distance fixed cost per ton.



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