Space Studies Board

Annual Report 2008

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2008

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The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council, jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear through its volunteer advisory committees. Support for the work of the Space Studies Board and its committees was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration contract NNH06CE15B, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Contract DG133R07SE1940, and National Reconnaissance Office Contract NRO000-04-C-0174.

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From the Chair The year 2008 was an historic one for both our country and the Space Studies Board (SSB). The United States elected a new president. His first task has been to cope with an economic crisis of historic propor- tions. In the same year, the United States celebrated the 50th anniversary of its first spaceflight, and the SSB celebrated its 50th anniversary. As we in the space community looked back, we also looked forward. The year 2008 was truly a year of transition, for the country and for the space enterprise. Under Lennard Fisk’s continued leadership, the SSB completed its year-long seminar series, Forging the Future of Space Science, which highlighted the accomplishments of space science over the past 50 years and looked ahead to the next 50 years of discoveries that await us. During the first half of the year, events were held in Tallahasse, Florida; Austin, Texas; Paris, France (in conjunction with the Committee on Space Re- search, which is headquartered here); Boulder, Colorado; and Fairmont, West Virginia. The series culminated in a celebration at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., on June 2650 years to the day after the SSB was created. At that event, the Board presented its first James A. Van Allen Lectureship to Frank McDonald. The Board is grateful to the sponsors of the seminar seriesthe National Academies, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Aerospace Corporation, ATK, Ball Aerospace, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and Orbitaland to the Richard Lounsbery Foundation for sponsoring the SSB James A. Van Allen Lectureship. I became SSB chair on July 1, 2008, at the conclusion of the SSB’s seminar series and before the economic crisis burst upon the world. The crisis made it obviousif it was not beforethat the U.S. economy does not stand alone. The global economy is becoming more and more integrated. The space enterprise cannot avoid this trend. In November, the SSB conducted a workshop in conjunction with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board entitled “Future International Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World.” Its goals were to assess the current state of international cooperation and competition in space and to discuss ways in which new and emerg- ing space powers might be better integrated into the global space community. iii

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We in the space community look forward to an uncertain future, confident in our accomplishments, dedicated to our fundamentals, and ready to shape the opportunities that periods of uncertainty inevitably bring. The SSB is ready to do its part. Charles F. Kennel Chair Space Studies Board iv

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Space Studies Board Chairs and Vice Chairs Chairs Lloyd V. Berkner (deceased), Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas, 1958−1962 Harry H. Hess (deceased), Princeton University, 1962–1969 Charles H. Townes, University of California at Berkeley, 1970−1973 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, 1974–1976 A.G.W. Cameron (deceased), Harvard College Observatory, 1977−1981 Thomas M. Donahue (deceased), University of Michigan, 1982−1988 Louis J. Lanzerotti, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Bell Laboratories, 1989−1994 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994–2000 John H. McElroy (deceased), University of Texas at Arlington, 2000–2003 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan, 2003–2008 Charles F. Kennel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, 2008– ViCe Chairs George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired), 2003–2006 A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), 2006– v

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Contents FROM THE CHAIR iii 1 CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BOARD 1 The Origins of the Space Science Board, 1 The Space Studies Board Today, 2 Collaboration With Other National Research Council Units, 4 Assuring the Quality of Space Studies Board Reports, 4 SSB Audience and Sponsors, 6 SSB Outreach and Dissemination, 7 Internship Program, 7 2 BOARD AND STANDING COMMITTEES: ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP 8 Space Studies Board, 8 Highlights of Space Studies Board Activities, 8 Space Studies Board Membership, 10 U.S. National Committee for COSPAR, 12 Standing Committees, 12 Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, 12 Committee on Earth Studies, 12 Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, 16 Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, 18 Committee on Solar and Space Physics, 20 Space Research Disciplines Without Standing Committee Representation, 20 3 AD HOC STUDY COMMITTEES: ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP 24 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Committee (Astro2010), 24 Heliophysics Performance Assessment, 25 Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, 26 New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration, 27 Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions, 28 Radioisotope Power Systems, 28 Rationale and Goals for the U.S. Civil Space Program, 29 Role and Scope of Mission-Enabling Activities in NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions, 30 vii

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viii Contents Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System, 30 Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft, 31 4 WORKSHOPS, SYMPOSIA, MEETINGS OF EXPERTS, 33 AND OTHER SPECIAL PROJECTS Balance in the Solar System Exploration Program, 33 Forging the Future of Space Science, 33 Future International Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World, 34 Organization of a Decadal Survey in Microgravity Research, 34 Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events, 35 Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data, 36 5 SUMMARIES OF MAJOR REPORTS 37 5.1 Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring, 38 5.2 Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System, 47 5.3 Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, 55 5.4 Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report, 59 5.5 Severe Space Weather EventsUnderstanding Societal and Economic Impacts: Workshop Report, 63 5.6 Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop, 68 5.7 United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop, 70 6 CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY 74 6.1 NASA’s Space Science Programs: Review of Fiscal 2009 Budget Request and Issues, 75 7 CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SSB REPORTS: 1958-2008 84

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