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Annual Report 2008 4 Workshops, Symposia, Meetings of Experts, and Other Special Projects In 2008, the Space Studies Board (SSB) convened three workshops (two in collaboration with other National Research Council [NRC] units), one colloquium, five public seminars, and two meetings of experts. (Projects are summarized below.) The planning committees for these projects do not provide advice and, therefore, are not governed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. Summary reports were published in 2008 for two 2007 workshops—the September 2007 Workshop to Promote Dialog on Space Science Activities and International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the November 2007 SSB-Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) Workshop on U.S. Civil Space Policy. These reports were summarized in the 2007 annual report. BALANCE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION PROGRAM On March 14-15, 2008, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) held a meeting of experts on balance in the solar system exploration program, convened by the NRC. The meeting involved approximately a dozen experts in the field of solar system exploration offering candid off-the-record advice to Associate Administrator Alan Stern and several of his advisors on various issues concerning the future of solar system exploration. Under the rules of the meeting, the NRC does not take minutes or prepare any written materials for NASA. At the time of the meeting, three additional meetings on other space science topics were planned. These meetings did not occur and no further meetings of experts are expected. Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board FORGING THE FUTURE OF SPACE SCIENCE The Forging the Future of Space Science international public seminar series commemorated the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year and SSB, engaging the public and the scientific community about the advances that have been achieved over the past 50 years in space science, and the discoveries that await us in the next 50 years. In this context, “space science” incorporates space-based astrophysics, heliophysics, Earth science, solar system exploration, and microgravity life and physical sciences. In 2008, the series continued with five public seminars and an all-day colloquium. Each seminar involved a panel session addressing the future of space science in various disciplines and a featured lecture. The featured lectures were delivered by Carl Walz, NASA astronaut and director, Advanced Capabilities, NASA Exploration Mission Systems Directorate (Leaving the Planet—Science and Technology Development Results on the Inter-
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Annual Report 2008 national Space Station, January 16, 2008, Tallahassee, Florida); Christopher Chyba, professor of astrophysical sciences and international affairs, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University (The Possibility of Life Elsewhere in the Universe, February 20, 2008, Austin, Texas); Christopher Rapley, director, Science Museum, London, England (Understanding the Poles of the Earth, Moon and Mars, March 27, 2008, Paris, France; the Paris venue was selected to underscore the international character of space science and was organized in conjunction with the Committee on Space Research); Edward C. Stone, president, International Academy of Astronautics, and professor of physics, California Institute of Technology (Understanding the Sun: Voyager’s Continuing Journey of Discovery, April 14, 2008, Boulder, Colorado); and Charles Elachi, director, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (The Future of Space and Earth Robotic Exploration: Scientific Administrator Technological Challenges, April 25, 2008, Fairmont, West Virginia). The all-day public colloquium, held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008, was followed by an invitation-only reception at the National Air and Space Museum. During the reception, the SSB awarded its James A. Van Allen Lectureship to Frank B. McDonald. Dr. McDonald lectured on Explorer 1: Gateway to the Never Ending Wonders of Space Science. Details about the series, along with webcasts, podcasts, and presentation files, can be found at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/International_Public_Seminar_Series.html. FUTURE INTERNATIONAL SPACE COOPERATION AND COMPETITION IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD The ad hoc Planning Committee for the Future International Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: A Workshop, under the auspices of the SSB and the ASEB, organized a public workshop to review past and present cooperation and coordination mechanisms for space and Earth science research and space exploration, identify significant lessons learned, and discuss how those lessons could best be applied in the future. The workshop was held on November 18-20, 2008, concurrent with the SSB meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, and featured invited presentations, panel discussions, and four discussion groups, each dedicated to a specific topic. Approximately 50 individuals participated, including the majority of the SSB and one member of the ASEB. A report summarizing the panel sessions and the output of the four discussion groups, prepared by the rapporteur and SSB staff, is expected to be released in March 2009. The workshop agenda and the two workshop keynotes can be found at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/International CooperationWorkshop2008.html. Planning Committee Membership Charles F. Kennel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California (chair) A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder David Goldston, Harvard University Joan Johnson-Freese, U.S. Naval War College Richard H. Kohrs, Independent Consultant Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, Climate Central Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board ORGANIZATION OF A DECADAL SURVEY IN MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH A meeting of experts on the organization of a decadal survey in microgravity research was held on May 15-16, 2008, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. Invited experts in physical and life sciences research heard presentations from NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate program on the agency’s strategy for implementing its exploration program and on the history of NASA’s space life and physical sciences research over the
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Annual Report 2008 last 5 years. Subsequent discussion between the invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the potential scope of a congressionally requested study in microgravity research, the opportunities and barriers to science community input and participation in the study, the organization of the study’s steering committee and panels, and the likely utilization of the report. The comments of the invited experts at the meeting were considered by NASA and the NRC in the later development of a task statement for the decadal survey. Following approval and funding, work began on the decadal study in December with the solicitation of nominations for a steering committee. Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS An ad hoc planning committee for the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events Workshop was formed in 2007 to organize a workshop to examine the nation’s current and future ability to manage the effects of space weather events on a wide range of critical infrastructures, and their resulting societal and economic impacts. The planning committee’s February 19-21, 2008, meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., was devoted to data gathering and planning for the workshop. Members of the committee and invited experts provided briefings on space weather effects on various infrastructure systems including GPS, aviation, satellites, and the electrical power grid. Speakers from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration briefed the committee on their space weather programs and services, and the committee also heard briefings on economic approaches to evaluating space weather impacts. As arranged, most of the speakers and invited participants remained for a full day of discussion with the committee on the workshop goals, topics, and issues. The final day of the meeting was held in closed session and the committee developed a preliminary agenda outline and potential list of speakers for the workshop. The committee continued to meet via conference call to develop activities for the workshop sessions and to identify, solicit, and coordinate with speakers and other participants. The workshop was held at the Washington Plaza Hotel in Washington, D.C., on May 22-23, 2008. Approximately 80 representatives from industry, government agencies, and academia were in attendance. The workshop was divided into topic panels that focused on understanding specific impacts of past events on various critical infrastructures, the systems currently in place to forecast events and mitigate their effects, and the societal and technical trends likely to affect the nation’s vulnerability to space weather impacts in the future. About 25 invited speakers discussed issues for specific systems such as satellites, communications, the power industry, and airlines. The workshop was successful in generating a vigorous information exchange and discussion among its diverse participants. The planning committee met in closed session immediately following the workshop and adjourned on May 25. Presentations from the workshop are posted online. A report summarizing the information presented and discussions from the workshop, Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: Workshop Report, was prepared by the workshop planning committee. The workshop report does not contain conclusions or recommendations. Copies of the report were delivered to NASA on December 18, 2008, with public release in January 2009. The report has generated a great degree of media interest due to the broad public impact of the scenarios discussed at the workshop. Planning Committee Membership* Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Roberta Balstad, Columbia University J. Michael Bodeau, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Eugene Cameron, United Airlines, Inc. Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Genene M. Fisher, American Meteorological Society Kevin F. Forbes, Catholic University of America Paul M. Kintner, Cornell University Louis G. Leffler, North American Electric Reliability Council (retired) William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Joseph B. Reagan, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (retired)
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Annual Report 2008 Arthur A. Small III, Pennsylvania State University Thomas A. Stansell, Stansell Consulting Leonard Strachan, Jr., Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board UNCERTAINTY MANAGEMENT IN REMOTE SENSING OF CLIMATE DATA Under the auspices of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications, and the SSB, an ad hoc committee was formed to plan and conduct the Workshop on Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data that took place at the Doubletree Hotel in Washington, D.C., on December 4, 2008. Convened jointly by the Climate Research Committee, the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics, and the Committee on Earth Studies, the workshop explored uncertainty management in remote sensing of climate information. Through invited presentations and discussion, participants examined sources of uncertainty throughout satellite and other remote data collection systems, including issues of sampling, scale, processing, and validation; described the statistical methods currently used to quantify these sources of uncertainty for climate-relevant data; and explored how modern statistical methods might be used to provide a more powerful framework for characterizing and propagating these uncertainties. A summary of the proceedings, prepared by a designated rapporteur, is expected to be released June 2009. Planning Committee Membership Amy Braverman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (chair) Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions John J. Bates, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration James A. Coakley, Jr., Oregon State University Karen Kafadar, Indiana University Douglas Nychka, National Center for Atmospheric Research Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan Steven E. Platnick, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Martha C. McConnell, Associate Program Officer, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (study director) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Scott T. Weidman, Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications Katie Weller, Research Associate, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Shelly Freeland, Program Assistant, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate * All terms expire in 2008.