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Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership

During 2008, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15.

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES

First Quarter

The SSB held its 155th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 10-12, 2008. The first day was devoted to briefings on relevant agency budgets for fiscal year (FY) 2008 and the requests for FY 2009. Guest speakers included Alan Stern, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD); Jitendra Joshi, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD); Mary Kicza, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS); Wayne van Citters and Richard Behnke, National Science Foundation (NSF); Dennis Kovar, Department of Energy Office of Science–High Energy Physics; Paul Shawcross and Amy Kaminski, Office of Management and Budget; Damon Wells, John Henry Scott, and Jean Cotton-Allen, Office of Science and Technology Policy; and congressional staff, including Dick Obermann, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; Ed Feddeman, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; and Chan Lieu, Senate Commerce Committee. The Board continued the discussion of the FY 2009 budget request on the second day with reports on its impacts from the chairs of the SSB standing committees and a board member from the microgravity life and physical sciences. The Board also met with NASA administrator Mike Griffin.



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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership During 2008, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chap- ter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. sPaCe sTUDies BOarD hiGhLiGhTs OF sPaCe sTUDies BOarD aCTiViTies First Quarter The SSB held its 155th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 10-12, 2008. The first day was devoted to briefings on relevant agency budgets for fiscal year (FY) 2008 and the requests for FY 2009. Guest speakers included Alan Stern, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD); Jitendra Joshi, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD); Mary Kicza, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS); Wayne van Citters and Richard Behnke, National Science Foundation (NSF); Dennis Kovar, Department of Energy Office of Science–High Energy Physics; Paul Shawcross and Amy Kaminski, Office of Management and Budget; Damon Wells, John Henry Scott, and Jean Cotton-Allen, Office of Science and Technology Policy; and congressional staff, including Dick Obermann, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; Ed Feddeman, House Sci- ence and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; and Chan Lieu, Senate Commerce Committee. The Board continued the discussion of the FY 2009 budget request on the second day with reports on its impacts from the chairs of the SSB standing committees and a board member from the microgravity life and physical sciences. The Board also met with NASA administrator Mike Griffin. 8

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 Board and Standing Committees second Quarter The Board held its 156th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on June 25, 2008. This one-day meeting included an update on NASA’s SMD from Ed Weiler, the new associate administrator for science, and Paul Hertz, SMD chief scientist; an update on NASA’s Constellation Program from Jim Norman (NASA/ESMD); an industry panel on Launch Vehicle Options for Delta 2-class space science missions with Dan Collins (United Launch Alliance), Bob Richards (Orbital Sciences Corporation), and Larry Williams (Space Explora- tion Technologies Corporation); and an update on the National Academies’ study on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation from Chris Elfring, director of the National Research Council (NRC) Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. Third Quarter The Board did not meet during this quarter; however, the SSB Executive Committee (XCOM) did meet on August 18-20, 2008, at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM spoke with congressional representatives from the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee and the House Committee on Science and Technology on the outlook from Capitol Hill. The committee continued general discussion on the roles and operations of the Board and its standing com- mittees, ad hoc committees, the financial status of the Board, the NRC efforts to streamline internal processes, and planning for the November SSB meeting and workshop. The latter included presentations by Mary Kicza, assistant administrator for NOAA/NESDIS; John Boright, executive director of the NRC’s Office of International Affairs, and Marc Allen, assistant associate administrator for strategy, policy, and international of NASA’s SMD. In addition to the current chair Charlie Kennel and the current director Marcia Smith, the XCOM was joined during this meeting by four former chairs, Len Fisk, Claude Canizares, Lou Lanzerotti, and Richard Goody and two former directors, Joe Alexander, and Marc Allen. Fourth Quarter At the Board’s meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 18, 2008, the chair and vice chair reported on discussions held at the Board’s XCOM meeting in August. Board members were presented with the status of several SSB activities, including a presentation by the chair of the astronomy and astro- physics decadal survey (Astro2010). The annual balance and composition discussion was also held. The meeting ended with a brief discussion of the objectives for the Board-sponsored “Workshop on Future International Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World.” The workshop is discussed in Chapter 4 of this report.

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 sPaCe sTUDies BOarD MeMBershiP July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (chair) (retired) (vice chair) A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (retired) (vice chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Los Alamos National Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Laboratory Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institution Dr. Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Atmospheric Research Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Atmospheric Research Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Laboratory Joan Johnson-Freese, U.S. Naval War College Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii, Manoa Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Berrien Moore III, Climate Central Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory California James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Richard H. Truly, National Renewable Energy Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Laboratory Warren M. Washington, National Center for Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Atmospheric Research Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Warren M. Washington, National Center for Ellen G. Zweibel, University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Research Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Ex Officio and Liaison Members Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex-officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Institute d’Astrophysique (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee) Jay S. Pearlman, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Enginners, Inc. (ex-officio, member of the NRC Ocean Studies Board) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (liaison, U.S. representative to the Committee on Space Research)

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 Board and Standing Committees Membership of the 2006 SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (chair) (retired) (vice chair) A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (retired) (vice chair) Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire California Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Staff Marcia S. Smith, Director Brant L. Sponberg, Senior Program Officer and Associate Director (from March) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer and Interim Associate Director (to February) Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer (from June) Robert L. Riemer,† Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Brian D. Dewhurst,† Program Officer Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer Victoria Swisher, Research Associate Barbara S. Akinwole, Information Management Associate (to October) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant Tanja Pilzak, Administrative Coordinator (to July) and Manager, Program Operations (from August) Christina O. Shipman, Financial Associate (to March) and Financial Officer (from April) Sandra Wilson, Financial Assistant (from August) Catherine A. Gruber, Assistant Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Linda Walker, Senior Project Assistant (from April) __________________ †Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB. Consultants Diana Alexander (to July) Johannes Loschnigg (to April) Ian W. Pryke (to June) 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Interns Kayleigh Ayn Bohemier, Summer Laura M. Delgado, Summer Lewis Groswald, Autumn

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 U.s. NaTiONaL COMMiTTee FOr COsPar The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Science conducted its annual business meetings—including meetings of the COSPAR Publications Committee, COSPAR Program Committee, COSPAR Scientific Advisory Committee, and COSPAR Bureau—at CNES Headquarters in Paris, France, on March 25-28, 2008. Activities focused on the final preparations for the biannual COSPAR Scientific Assembly. COSPAR held its biennial scientific assembly in Montreal, Canada, on July 13-19, 2008. Edward Stone, COSPAR vice president and U.S. representative to COSPAR, and staff of the U.S. National Committee for COSPAR participated in the July 12 preassembly and July 20 postassembly meetings of the COSPAR Council. Major items discussed and approved by the COSPAR Council included the initiation of a new program of capacity-building fellow- ships and changes in COSPAR planetary protection policies relating to the Moon, Venus, and Mars special regions and human exploration activities. Future COSPAR activities include the annual business meetings to be held in Paris in March 2009, and the scientific assemblies to be held in Bremen, Germany, in 2010 and Mysore, India, in 2014. Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (U.S. representative to COSPAR) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (executive secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board sTaNDiNG COMMiTTees COMMiTTee ON asTrONOMY aND asTrOPhYsiCs The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), was on a hiatus until the completion of the next astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, Astro2010, and did not meet in 2008. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1. Membership† Charles L. Bennett,† Johns Hopkins University (co-chair) C. Megan Urry,‡ Yale University (co-chair) Michell C. Begelman,† University of Colorado, Boulder Adam S. Burrows,† University of Arizona Lynne Hillenbrand,† California Institute of Technology Charles McGruder III,† Western Kentucky University Staff David Lang, Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board __________________ †Term ended June 30, 2008. ‡Term ended December 31, 2007. COMMiTTee ON earTh sTUDies The Committee on Earth Studies (CES) resumed activities following a long hiatus while the decadal survey, “Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future,” and the follow-on decadal survey activitiesthe Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft and the ad hoc Committee on A Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft were under way. As the first quarter ended, the committee was making final preparations for its first meeting in 2008.

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 Board and Standing Committees A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and First CenturyAstronomy and Observatories for Astronomy Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground-Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of Failed Stars and Super A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Astronomical Planets (1998) and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) “Review of Science U.S. Astronomy and The Atacama Large Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) Requirements for the Astrophysics: Managing Millimeter Array (ALMA): Terrestrial Planet Finder: an Integrated Program Implications of a (2001) Letter Report” (2004) Potential Descope “The Review of Progress in (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy The Astrophysical (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) Science Centers (2007) Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An A Performance Assessment of NASA ’s Architecture for Implementation (2007) Astrophysics Program (2007) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2007). 2-1

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 At the April 7-8, 2008, CES meeting in Washington, D.C., guests included the director of NASA’s Earth Science Program, Michael Freilich, and the head of NOAA/NESDIS, Mary Kicza. In addition to receiving updates on the status of NASA and NOAA Earth observation programs, Dr. Freilich and Ms. Kicza led discussions of potential new studies for ad hoc committees of the SSB. At the CES meeting in September 22-23, 2008, in Boulder, Colorado, the committee received a background briefing on the COSMIC mission and updates on progress in implementing the decadal survey-recommended mis- sions ICESat-II and CLARREO. SSB member Jack Fellows (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research) summarized a recently published report that provides program, management, and budget recommendations to the next administration and Congress on R&D needs to meet our nation’s energy and climate change challenges. The report includes recommendations on how to make the nation more resilient to severe weather and climate change. By teleconference, the committee spoke at length with Michael Freilich (NASA) and Mary Kicza (NOAA). In addition to receiving updates on the status of NASA and NOAA Earth observation programs, Dr. Freilich and Dr. Kicza led discussions of potential new studies for ad hoc committees of the SSB. The committee also spoke by teleconference with former NOAA administrator Jim Baker regarding a proposed Earth systems science agency. The committee did not meet during the fourth quarter; however, members and staff were active in developing new study prospectuses, and members participated in the following NRC activities: • he committee worked with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate to organize a December 8, T 2008, program planning meeting to consider the utility of a possible NRC study on attribution of climate change, with a focus on solar influences. • he committee collaborated with other units in the NRC to organize the December 4, 2008, workshop T “Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data” (see Chapter 4 of this report). • everal committee members participated in the planning of the National Academies’ study on Climate S Change Adaptation and Mitigation, entitled America’s Climate Choices, a major initiative focusing on providing decision makers with near-term options related to mitigation and adaption to anticipated climate change. (See http://dels.nas.edu/basc/climate-change/index.shtml.) A historical summary of reports from CES and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. Membership Berrien Moore III,† Climate Central (chair) Ruth S. DeFries,† Columbia University (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Heidi M. Dierssen,‡ University of Connecticut, Avery Point Hung-Lung Allen Huang, University of Wisconsin, Madison Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Jay S. Pearlman, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board __________________ †Term began November 6, 2007. ‡Term began March 27, 2008.

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 Board and Standing Committees NASA’s Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions (1999) "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for Management Review of NASA’s Earth and Decision Making (2003) Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) “Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Strategy” (2003) Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) Review of Goals and Plans for NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences (2005) “A Review of NASA’s 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2007). 2-2

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 COMMiTTee ON The OriGiNs aND eVOLUTiON OF LiFe The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, met on February 13-15, 2008, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. In addition to briefings on the current status of NASA’s Astrobiology and related programs, the committee devoted a significant amount of time to presentations, discussions, and deliberations concerning NASA’s planning for an outer solar system flagship mission. In response to a request from SSB, committee members drafted an assessment of the current status of NASA’s Astrobiology program in light of the agency’s enacted budget for FY 2008 and proposed budget for FY 2009. Astrobiology studies being planned or organized by COEL included (1) a review of the planetary protection requirements for Mars sample return missions, (2) an astrobiology strategy for the exploration of the outer solar system, and (3) the origins and evolution of life: a science strategy for the 21st century. At COEL’s May 13-15, 2008, meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., in addition to briefings on the current status of NASA’s Astrobiology and related programs, the committee devoted a significant amount of time to presentations, discussions, and deliberations concerning the origins and early evolution of life. The committee’s October 28-30, 2008, meeting at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, was notable in that it was presided over by the incoming co-chair Robert T. Pappalardo and the soon-to-depart co-chair Kenneth H. Nealson. Dr. Nealson’s successor and six new members are in the process of being appointed. The meeting was primarily devoted to various aspects of the NASA Astrobiology Institute’s (NAI’s) activities, including presentations from Mary Voytek, the acting director of NASA’s Astrobiology program; Carl Pilcher, the director of NAI; the principal investigators of several of the recently selected new NAI teams; the chairs of several of the NAI’s astrobiology focus groups; and a selected group of participants devoted to current and forthcoming Mars exploration activities. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 July 2008–June 30, 2009† Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (co- California (co-chair) chair) Stanley M. Awramik,‡ University of California, Santa Bruce M. Jakosky, University of Colorado, Boulder (co-chair) Barbara Paul G. Falkowski,‡ Rutgers, The State University of Jan P. Amend, Washington University Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa New Jersey, New Brunswick Antonio Lazcano,‡ Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Barbara Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Mexico Ralph D. Lorenz,‡ Johns Hopkins University, Applied Paul G. Falkowski, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick Physics Laboratory Kenneth H. Nealson,* University of Southern California Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma John C. Priscu,‡ Montana State University de Mexico Sara Seager,‡ Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Everett Shock,‡ Arizona State University Physics Laboratory Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville John C. Priscu, Montana State University Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto __________________ Everett Shock, Arizona State University †Appointment of a new co-chair and new members is pending. Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington ‡Term began October 22, 2007. Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University *Term ended December 31, 2008.

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7 Board and Standing Committees Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life—An Sterilization Anthology and Bibliography, Parameter Probability Supplementary to Biology and “Review of Planetary Astrobiology of Growth (Pg)” the Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Life—Implications for the Planets: A Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) Scientific Strategy for the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous— Biological Contamination Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby Asteroid Flyby of Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- Mission”(1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Forward Assessment of Options Contamination of for the Disposition of the The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Galileo Spacecraft” of Martian Samples (2002) (2000) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) the Exploration of Mars (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) 2-3 FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2007).

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8 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMiTTee ON PLaNeTarY aND LUNar eXPLOraTiON The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) met on March 19-21, 2008, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. In addition to briefings on the status of NASA planetary sciences, the presentations and discussions of the committee were primarily focused in three areas: (1) understanding fund- ing and development issues related to the Mars Science Laboratory mission; (2) potential commercial capabilities for launching small planetary science missions in the future; and (3) understanding NASA’s needs for the upcom- ing NRC decadal survey on solar system exploration. Other presentations included briefings on NSF plans for the Arecibo Observatory, Stirling cycle technology for radioisotope-powered missions, and early results from the Messenger flyby of Mercury. COMPLEX met August 20-22, 2008, in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to plan for the next decadal survey on solar system exploration. The meeting included open discussions that examined lessons learned from past decadal studies, with previous key participants such as Mark Sykes from the Planetary Science Institute, Michael Belton of Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, and Joseph Burns of Cornell University. The committee also discussed with Jim Green of NASA and Vern Pankonin of NSF the perspectives and needs of their respective agencies. In addition, the committee heard presentations on lessons learned from experts in mission cost estimating. The committee later utilized these various inputs in discussing a statement of task for the study, a general work plan, critical areas of expertise needed, and potential study participants. Following the meeting a draft statement of task was forwarded to NASA for review. The committee will stand down during the period of the upcoming decadal study, which is expected to begin in early 2009. A historical summary of reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4. Membership† Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University (chair) W. Bruce Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Penelope J. Boston, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Bonnie J. Buratti, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Roger N. Clark, U.S. Geological Survey Michael R. Combi, University of Michigan John Grant, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Alfred S. McEwen, University of Arizona Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University Dawn Y. Sumner, University of California, Davis Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board __________________ †Terms end December 31, 2008.

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 Board and Standing Committees INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration—Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Strategy for Exploration of the Primitive Solar-System Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 A Strategy for Exploration (1980) Update to Strategy for of the Outer Planets: Exploration of the Inner 1986-1996 (1986) Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Assessment of Mars A Science Strategy for the Exploring the Trans- Science and Mission Exploration of Europa (1999) Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian The Exploration of Samples (2001) Near-Earth Objects (1998) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA’s Mars The Scientific Context for Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Exploration of the Moon (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (2007) FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969-2007). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3. 2-4

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 COMMiTTee ON sOLar aND sPaCe PhYsiCs The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) held its first meeting of 2008 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on April 1-2, where it received presentations on the current state of NASA’s and NSF’s solar and space physics programs, NASA’s research and analysis grant program, ground-based neutron moni- tors, and an economic analysis of the impacts of space weather. At its December 3-4, 2008, meeting in the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., the commit- tee spoke with congressional staff from the House Committee on Science and Technology regarding the legislative and budget outlook from Capitol Hill. The committee also discussed the status of NASA’s Heliophysics programs with Richard Fisher and the status of relevant NSF Upper Atmosphere Research programs with Richard Behnke. David Cummings briefed the committee on the Universities Space Research Association and its current and planned activities. The committee also received presentations from Peter Klupar on small spacecraft activities at NASA’s Ames Research Center and from Kent Bress on international agreements managed by NASA Headquarters’ Office of External Relations. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. Membership Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan (vice chair) Joseph F. Fennell,† The Aerospace Corporation Maura E. Hagan,‡ National Center for Atmospheric Research Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana,† University of California, Los Angeles William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Dana Warfield Longcope, Montana State University Ramon E. Lopez,‡ University of Texas, Arlington Kristina A. Lynch,† Dartmouth College Richard A. Mewaldt,† California Institute of Technology Merav Opher,‡ George Mason University Howard J. Singer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ronald E. Turner,† ANSER Corporation __________________ †Term ended December 31, 2008. ‡Term began January 31, 2008. Staff Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (from May) Johannes Loschnigg, Consultant, Space Studies Board (to April) Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board sPaCe researCh DisCiPLiNes WiThOUT sTaNDiNG COMMiTTee rePreseNTaTiON Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a life and microgravity decadal survey will be conducted in 2009-2010. A historical summary of NRC- SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7.

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 Board and Standing Committees Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, The Physics of the Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Sun (1985) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Astronomy and Radiation and the Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: Astrophysics in the International Space Station: Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for New Millennium Recommendations to Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) (2000) Reduce Risk (1999) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Distributed Arrays of Small Solar and Space Physics Instruments for Solar- Heliosphere and the Local and Its Role in Space Terrestrial Research: Report Interstellar Medium: A Exploration (2004) Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather Events–Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: Workshop Report (2008) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980-2008). 2-5

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—008 Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Applications: Report on a Imperatives for the Workshop (1986, Board on Decades 1995 to Physics and Astronomy) 2015. Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) “On the Utilization of the Space Station” (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) “On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report” (1995) (1996) (1997) “On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station” (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978-2006). 2-6

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 Board and Standing Committees SPACE BIOLOGY HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Report on NASA Biology Program (1968) Physiology in the Space Radiobiological Factors in Environment, Vols. 1 and 2 Manned Spaceflight (1967) Space Biology (1970) (1968) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Report Guides and in Manned of the Study to Review NASA Constraints for Spaceflight: Life Sciences Programs (1970) Space-Mission and Probabilities and Vehicle-Design Countermeasures Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Life Beyond the Earth’s Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) Environment (1979) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) “On the Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Life Sciences (1988) Extended Duration Orbiter Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine1991 Medical (1991) Research “On Several Issues in the Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” (1993) “On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility ” (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On the Planned and Research Strategies (1996) “On Peer Review in National Space NASA Life Sciences Biomedical Programs” (1995) Research Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA’s Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.7 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2006). 2-7