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Appendix C Novel Human Pathogen Species TABLE C-1 List of 87 Novel Human Pathogen Species Discovered Since 1980 Year Pathogen Species Year Pathogen Species 1987 Suid herpevirus 1 1980 Puumala virus Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 Sealpox virus 1981 Dhori virus Microsporidian africanum 1982 Seoul virus 1988 Picobirnavirus Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 Barmah Forest virus 1989 Hepatitis C virus Borrelia burgdorferi 1983 Human immunodeficiency virus 1 European bat lyssavirus 1 Human adenovirus F Corynebacterium amycolatum Hepatitis E virus 1990 Vittaforma corneae Trubanaman virus Helicobacter pylori Semliki Forest virus Capnocytophaga canimorsus Candiru virus Reston Ebola virus 1984 Gan gan virus Scedosporium prolificans Rotavirus B Banna virus Human torovirus 1991 Nosema ocularum 1985 Guanarito virus Pleistophora ronneafiei Enterocytozoon bieneusi Encephalitozoon hellem Borna disease virus Ehrlichia chaffeensis 1986 Rotavirus C 1992 Dobrava-Belgrade virus Kokobera virus Bartonella henselae Kasokero virus 1993 Sin Nombre virus Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Gymnophalloides seoi Human herpesvirus 6 Encephalitozoon intestinalis European bat lyssavirus 2 Bartonella elizabethae Cyclospora cayetanensis continued 

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES TABLE C-1 Continued Year Pathogen Species Year Pathogen Species 1994 Sabia virus 1998 Trachipleistophora anthropophthera Human herpesvirus 8 Menangle virus Human herpesvirus 7 Brachiola vesicularum Hendra virus 1999 TT virus Nipah virus Anaplasma phagocytophila 1995 New York virus Ehrlichia ewingii Hepatitis G virus Brachiola algerae Côte d’Ivoire Ebola virus 2000 Whitewater Arroyo virus Black creek canal virus 2001 Cryptosporidium felis Bayou virus Human metapneumovirus 1996 Usutu virus Baboon cytomegalovirus 2002 Trachipleistophora hominis Cryptosporidium hominis 2003 SARS coronavirus Metorchis conjunctus Juquitiba virus 2004 Human coronavirus NL63 2005 Human T-lymphotropic virus 4 Ehrlichia canis BSE agent Human T-lymphotropic virus 3 Australian bat lyssavirus Human coronavirus HKU1 Andes virus Human bocavirus 1997 Laguna Negra virus 2007 Ki virus Wu virus Bartonella clarridgeiae Melaka virus NOTE: Approximately 80 percent of these are associated with nonhuman reservoirs or origins. SOURCE: Adapted from Woolhouse, M., and E. Gaunt (2007). Ecological Origins of Novel Human Pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol 33(4):231–242.