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Appendix E Committee Biosketches Gerald T. Keusch, M.D. (Co-Chair), is Associate Director of the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory at Boston University, and Special Assistant to the University President for Global Health. Prior to joining Boston University, Dr. Keusch served as Director of the Fogarty Interna- tional Center at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Associate Director for International Research in the office of the NIH Director. A graduate of Columbia College and Harvard Medical School, he is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He has been involved in clinical medicine, teaching, and research for his entire career, most re- cently as Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine and Senior Attending Physician and Chief of the Division of Geographic Medi- cine and Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. His research has ranged from the molecular pathogenesis of tropical infectious diseases to field research in nutrition, immunology, host susceptibility, and the treatment of tropical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS. He was a Faculty Associate at Harvard Institute for Interna- tional Development in the Health Office. Dr. Keusch is the author of more than 300 original publications, reviews, and book chapters, and he is the editor of 8 scientific books. He is the recipient of the Squibb, Finland, and Bristol awards for research excellence of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and has delivered numerous named lectures on topics of science and global health at leading institutions around the world. He is pres- ently involved in international health research and policy with the NIH, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and has been a member of 0

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0 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES several IOM consensus committees. He is currently a member of the IOM Board on Global Health, the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats, and the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Roundtable on Science and Technol- ogy for Sustainability. Marguerite Pappaioanou, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D. (Co-Chair), is the Ex- ecutive Director of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Col- leges (AAVMC) in Washington, DC. Prior to joining the AAVMC, Dr. Pappaioanou held a joint appointment as Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology in the School of Public Health and College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota. While at the University of Min- nesota, she was Principal Investigator at the National Institutes of Health Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Avian Influenza Coop- erative Research Center. Dr. Pappaioanou also held numerous positions at CDC, most recently Acting Deputy Director in the Office of Global Health in 2004 and Associate Director for Science and Policy from 1999–2004. She co-coordinated CDC’s international response to the SARS and avian flu outbreaks in 2003 and served as the point of contact at CDC for Depart- ment of Health and Human Services’ activities in Afghanistan and Iraq. As Chief of Surveillance and Evaluation—Special Projects, AIDS Program, and as Assistant Chief for Science, she led studies of AIDS and HIV infection and survey design for a national system of HIV surveillance in 39 U.S. cit- ies. She received the Charles C. Shepard Science Award for coauthorship of the scientific paper Prevalence of HIV Infection in Childbearing Women in the United States. Dr. Pappaioanou has received numerous awards, including the U.S. Public Health Service Commendation and Outstanding Service Medals; Award of Recognition, Association of Teachers of Public Health and Preventive Medicine; and the Robert Dyar Labrador Memorial Lectureship, University of California (UC) Davis, 2002. She is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and an honorary Diplomate of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society for her contri- butions to progress in public health. Dr. Pappaioanou received her Ph.D. in comparative pathology and M.P.V.M. from UC, Davis, and her D.V.M. and B.Sc. from Michigan State University. She recently served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Methodological Improvements to the Department of Homeland Security’s Biological Agent Risk Analysis. Corrie Brown, D.V.M., Ph.D., is the Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia. Her research interests include pathogenesis of infectious disease in food- producing animals through the use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hy- bridization. She is active in the fields of emerging diseases and international

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0 APPENDIX E veterinary medicine and currently serves as Coordinator of Activities for the College of Veterinary Medicine. Prior to joining University of Georgia in 1996, she worked at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plum Island Foreign Animal Disease Center for 10 years, conducting pathogen- esis and control studies on many of the foreign animal diseases. Her bench research interests at University of Georgia have been focused on poultry diseases, and she works closely with the USDA facility in Athens that is dedicated to foreign diseases of poultry. In educational research, she has several grants to help promote awareness of foreign animal diseases and global issues in veterinary curricula and beyond. Dr. Brown is a Diplo- mate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists. She has served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases and the Committee on Genomics Databases for Bioterrorism Threat Agents: Striking a Balance for Information Sharing. She also trained veterinarians in Afghanistan to perform animal autopsies to help prevent the spread of bird flu. She has published or presented more than 250 scientific papers and has testified to Congress on issues involving agroterrorism. Dr. Brown has served on many industrial and federal panels and been a technical consultant to numerous foreign governments on issues involving infectious diseases and animal health infrastructure. Dr. Brown received her Ph.D. in veterinary pathology with a specialization in infectious diseases from UC Davis, and her D.V.M. from the University of Guelph. John S. Brownstein, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Computational Epidemiology Group at the Children’s Hospital Boston Informatics Program of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences. Dr. Brownstein was trained as an epidemiolo- gist in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at Yale Uni- versity. His research is dedicated to statistical and informatics approaches aimed at improving public health surveillance and practice. This research has focused on a variety of infectious disease systems including malaria, HIV, dengue, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, RSV, salmonella, and influenza. He is also leading the development of several novel disease surveillance systems, including HealthMap.org, an Internet-based global infectious dis- ease intelligence system. The system is currently in use by the CDC, WHO, DHS, DOD, HHS, and EU. Dr. Brownstein has advised the World Health Organization, the Institute of Medicine, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and Homeland Security, and the White House on real-time public health surveillance. He has used this experience in his role as Vice President of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. He has authored more than 40 articles in the area of public health surveillance. This work has been reported on widely including in pieces in the New

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0 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES England Journal of Medicine, Science, Nature, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, National Public Radio, and the BBC. Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is President of Wildlife Trust, an international con- servation and health nongovernmental organization (NGO). His research addresses the link between anthropogenic environmental change, wildlife diseases, public health, and conservation. He is especially involved in re- search on emerging diseases, in trying to understand their ecology and the factors that drive emergence. Dr. Daszak’s work includes studying the ecology of West Nile virus, Nipah virus (a disease that emerged from fruit bats to kill more than 100 humans in Malaysia recently), SARS (identifying bats as the reservoir for SARS-like coronaviruses), H5N1 avian influenza, H1N1 influenza and other diseases that cross the wildlife–livestock–human boundary. His group has developed new ways to predict disease emergence and spread and recently produced the first global map of emerging disease “hotspots.” Dr. Daszak also works on wildlife emerging diseases that have conservation significance (e.g., amphibian chytridiomycosis, Partula snail microsporidiosis, testing hypothesized examples of extinction by infec- tion). Dr. Daszak has a number of research projects investigating the role of trade in the spread of wildlife and human pathogens and the impact of this on public health and conservation. He recently served on the NRC’s Committee on National Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. He is originally from Britain, where he earned a B.Sc. in zoology and a Ph.D. in parasitology. Cornelis de Haan graduated with a degree in animal science from Wageningen University, the Netherlands, in 1966. From 1966 to 1967, he worked in dairy research and development in Ecuador and in smallholder agriculture in Peru. He then moved to Africa, where until 1983 he occupied the posts of Senior Scientist and later Deputy Director General (research) of the Inter- national Livestock Center for Africa in Addis Ababa. He joined the World Bank in Washington, DC, in 1983, initially as Senior Livestock Specialist for West Africa and later for Eastern Europe and the Middle East. From 1992 to 2001 he occupied the post of Senior Advisor for Livestock Development, responsible for the livestock development policies of the World Bank. Mr. de Haan is now retired but still works as a consultant on animal agriculture for the World Bank. His main interests are institutional aspects of livestock development, livestock and the environment, food safety issues, and live- stock and poverty reduction. He is currently also part of a World Bank/ United Nations System Influenza Coordinator (UNSIC) task force “Beyond HPAI,” which will recommend institutional and funding mechanisms for a more permanent control of pandemics and other zoonotic diseases.

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0 APPENDIX E Christl A. Donnelly, Sc.D., M.Sc., is Professor of Statistical Epidemiology at Imperial College, London. Prior to her work at the Imperial College she was the Head of the Statistics Unit at the University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology (1995–2000) and a Lec- turer in Statistics at the University of Edinburgh (1992–1995). Her research focuses on the synthesis of methods combining sound statistical principles and insights from biomathematical models of disease transmission. She has considerable experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bovine tuberculosis (TB), and avian influenza. Dr. Donnelly has been a member of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Schistosomiasis Con- trol Initiative (SCI) Technical Committee since 2002. She was the Deputy Chairman of the Independent Scientific Group on Cattle TB from 1998 to 2007 and contributed to the Office of Science and Innovation’s project Foresight—Infectious Diseases: Preparing for the Future from 2004 to 2006. She was an advisor to the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC) from 1996 to 2003, and she was a “BSE and Sheep Subgroup” member from 1998 to 1999. Dr. Donnelly was also a mem- ber of the Foot and Mouth Disease Official Science Group and the Joint Royal Society/Academy of Medical Sciences Working Group on the Science of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2001. She was awarded with the Distinguished Alum Award by the Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Biostatistics in 2005 and with the Franco- British prize by the Académie des Sciences in Paris in 2002. Dr. Donnelly received her Sc.D. and M.Sc. in biostatistics from Harvard University and her B.A. in mathematics from Oberlin College. David P. Fidler, J.D., M.Phil., B.C.L., is James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law at Indiana University School of Law and is Director of the Indiana University Center on American and Global Security. Professor Fidler is one of the world’s leading experts on international law and public health, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. His books in this area include Interna- tional Law and Infectious Diseases (Clarendon Press, 1999), International Law and Public Health (Transnational Publishers, 2000), SARS, Gover- nance, and the Globalization of Disease (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), and Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law (Stanford University Press, 2008) (with Lawrence O. Gostin). Professor Fidler has acted as an international legal consultant to the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Department of Defense, and various nongovern- mental organizations involved with global health or arms control issues. Kenneth H. Hill, Ph.D., is Visiting Professor of Population Practice at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research interests have been in

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0 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES the development of demographic measurement methods (particularly for demographic outcomes that are hard to measure, such as child and adult mortality, unmet need for family planning, undocumented migration); the measurement of child mortality (with particular emphasis on tracking na- tional trends and linking them to other changes); the exploration of links between demographic parameters and economic crisis; the impact of policy and programs on demographic change; the role of gender preferences on child health behaviors and fertility; the demography of sub-Saharan Africa; the role of development, particularly child mortality change, on fertility decline; the measurement of demographic parameters for populations un- dergoing complex emergencies; and measurement of adult mortality in the developing world: Africa, Asia, Middle East, Latin America. Dr. Hill has also served on several National Research Council committees or panels and has chaired both the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Working Group on Demographic Effects of Economic and Social Reversals. Ann Marie Kimball, M.D., M.P.H.,1 is Professor of Epidemiology and Health Services and an Adjunct in Medicine and Biomedical and Health Informatics at the University of Washington. She also serves as the Director of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Emerging Infections Networks and the Director of the Amauata Global Informatics research and training program. Dr. Kimball has devoted her career to studying health issues and has worked in numerous positions in the United States and abroad. Her research interests are primarily in international health, trade, HIV/AIDS, emerging infections, maternal and child health, and health informatics. In 2006, she published Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in an Era of Global Trade (Ashgate). She has previously served as a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections, as a member of the Depart- ment of Health Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Strategic Planning Task Force, as regional adviser for the Pan American Health Organization in HIV/AIDS, and as Chair of the National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors in the United States. She has served as a U.S. delegate to the American Pacific Economic Council Health Working Group. Dr. Kimball received her M.D. and M.P.H. from the University of Washington and her B.S. in biology and humanities from Stanford University. She is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians. Ramanan Laxminarayan, Ph.D., M.P.H.,1 is a Senior Fellow at Resources for the Future, where he directs the Center for Disease Dynamics, Econom- ics, and Policy, and a visiting scholar and lecturer at Princeton University. 1 Appointed in September 2008.

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0 APPENDIX E His research deals with the integration of epidemiological models of infec- tious diseases and drug resistance into the economic analysis of public health problems. He has worked to improve the understanding of drug resistance as a problem of managing a shared global resource. Dr. Laxminarayan has worked with WHO and the World Bank on evaluating malaria treat- ment policy, vaccination strategies, the economic burden of tuberculosis, and control of noncommunicable diseases. He has served on a number of advisory committees at WHO, CDC, and IOM. In 2003–2004, he served on the NRC/IOM Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs and subsequently helped create the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria, a novel financing mechanism for antimalarials. His work has been covered in major media outlets including Associated Press, BBC, CNN, Economist, Los Angeles Times, NBC, NPR, Reuters, Science, The Wall Street Journal, and National Journal. Dr. Laxminarayan received his undergraduate de- gree in engineering from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, India, and his M.P.H. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Washington, Seattle. Terry F. McElwain, D.V.M., Ph.D., is a professor in the School for Global Animal Health and holds administrative appointments as Executive Direc- tor of the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Director of the Animal Health Research Center in the College of Veterinary Medi- cine at Washington State University. He is Past President of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians and serves on the Board of Directors of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Dr. McElwain has been a key architect in the creation and development of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network and has been closely involved in the development of the new School for Global Animal Health at Washington State University. He interacts with CDC and is also a member of the governor’s emergency preparedness task force in the state of Washington. Dr. McElwain is an elected member of the IOM. He recently served on the NRC’s Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. Dr. McElwain has a long and established research record in the field of veterinary infectious diseases, especially those of agricultural animals. He received his D.V.M. from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, in 1980, and his Ph.D. from Washington State University in 1986. Mark Nichter, M.P.H., Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, holding joint appointments in the Departments of Family Medicine and Public Health. He has pioneered the use of ethno- graphic methods in the fields of medicine, ethnomedicine, and public health. Professor Nichter has conducted extensive research in developing countries

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0 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES as well as in the United States, and his research and writing has shaped the field of medical anthropology and addressed such issues as child survival, infectious and vector-borne disease, women’s health, pharmaceutical use and drug resistance, tobacco use and nicotine dependency, and emerging diseases. At the University of Arizona, he has built a doctoral program in medical anthropology and has helped train health social scientists and medical and public health researchers in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the Philippines. He also played a pivotal role in developing an international clinical epidemiology network that operates in over 41 different countries. Professor Nichter has received some of the most prestigious awards in his discipline, including the Radcliffe-Brown Award from the Royal Anthro- pological Society and the Margaret Mead Award from the American An- thropological Association. The Society for Medical Anthropology awarded him the Virchow Award and most recently its Career Achievement Award. Professor Nichter served as the President for the Society of Medical Anthro- pology and has served as a member of two IOM committees: one focusing on tobacco use among youth in the United States, and the other on Ameri- cans’ use of complementary and alternative medicine. Mo Salman, B.V.M.S., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., is Professor of Veterinary Epide- miology in the Animal Population Health Institute of College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University. He holds appointments in the Department of Clinical Science and Department of Environmental Health and Radiological Sciences. He established the Ani- mal Population Health Institute at Colorado State University in 2002 and served as its Director until 2006. Prior to the establishment of the Animal Population Health Institute, he served as Director of the Center of Veteri- nary Epidemiology and Animal Disease Surveillance Systems and Director of the Center of Economically Important Infectious Animal Diseases. His educational background is in veterinary medicine, preventive veterinary medicine, and comparative pathology. He received his veterinary medical degree from the University of Baghdad, Iraq, and a master’s degree in pre- ventive veterinary medicine and a Ph.D. from UC Davis. He is a Diplomate on the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. Dr. Salman is the author of more than 230 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals and has participated in numerous conferences and national and international meetings during his more than 25 years as a faculty member. He is Editor-in-Chief of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and has served on the boards of scientific journals such as the American Journal of Veterinary Research. Dr. Salman is engaged in research and outreach projects in more than 15 countries around the world. Dr. Salman’s research interests are on the methodology of surveillance and survey for animal diseases with emphasis on infectious diseases. He is the

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 APPENDIX E recipient of the 2007 AVMA XII International Veterinary Congress Prize for his contributions to international understanding of veterinary medicine. Oyewale Tomori, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Vice-Chancellor of Redeemer’s Uni- versity in Nigeria. Professor Tomori received his D.V.M. from the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, and his Ph.D. in virology from the University of Ibadan. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom and a Fellow of the Academy of Science in Nigeria. Dr. Tomori is also a Fellow of the College of Veterinary Surgeons of Nigeria. Dr. Tomori worked as a Regional Virologist in Africa with WHO for many years and is a virologist of international repute in the Africa Region. Within the past 30 years, he has carried out meaningful research studies on a wide range of human viruses and zoonotic and veterinary viruses, which are of immense public health importance in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. The studies involve epidemiological and serological surveys for viral infections, the control of viral epidemics, the development of diagnostic tests for viral infections, the immunology of viruses, the pathology and pathogenesis of viruses, the development of viral vaccines, and the characterization and ecology of viruses. Prominent among the viruses he has studied are the Yellow fever virus, the Lassa fever virus, the poliomyelitis virus, the measles virus, the Ebola virus, and a hitherto unknown virus, the Orungo virus, of which he elucidated the properties and registered with the International Committee of Virus Taxonomy. This discovery is considered an outstanding contribution to the discipline of virology. Professor Tomori is recognized as one of Africa’s frontline Lassa fever researchers. He has developed a unique diagnostic virus neutralization test for the Lassa fever. His major contribu- tion on Yellow fever was the development of a technique for forecasting impending outbreaks of the disease, which has helped to put Nigeria in a state of preparedness to combat the epidemic. Kevin D. Walker, M.S., Ph.D., is a professor with the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center at Michigan State University, College of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University. Current initiatives include food and its sustainability in a highly connected, complex world, and design and implementation of strategic initiatives where animal health, public health and the environment intersect at the national and global level. Dr. Walker’s areas of expertise include animal diseases, economics, food safety, international trade standards and agreements, leadership, and policy. He previously spent 8 years as Director of Agricultural Health and Food Safety within the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture, based in Costa Rica, where he worked with national governments in the 34 countries in the Americas to enhance public infrastructure, leadership development, emerging issues assessments, and implementation of international trade

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES standards and agreements. Prior to working overseas, he was the Direc- tor of the Centers for Emerging Issues within the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services. During this time the Center carried out a variety of national risk analyses for emerging is- sues including BSE, E. coli O157:H7, avian influenza, and tuberculosis. Dr. Walker has collaborated and worked with a large number of organizations including the World Trade Organization, the World Organization for Ani- mal Health, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, the International Plant Protection Convention, and the Codex Alimentarius, and he recently served on the NRC’s Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. He is also a Fellow with the Kellogg Foundation. Mark Woolhouse, Ph.D., is Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. He trained as a population biologist with a B.A. from Oxford University, an M.Sc. from the University of York, and a Ph.D. from Queen’s University before turning to epidemi- ology. He held research posts at the University of Zimbabwe, Imperial College London (MRC Training Fellowship), the University of Oxford (Beit Memorial Fellowship and Royal Society University Research Fellowship), and now Edinburgh (initially in the School of Veterinary Studies). He has worked on a variety of infectious disease systems: human schistosomiasis, involving extensive field work in rural Zimbabwe; verocytotoxigenic E. coli in cattle in rural Scotland; the epidemiology and transmission biology of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock; trypanosomiasis in humans, cat- tle, and tsetse in east and southern Africa; and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in cattle (BSE) and in sheep (scrapie). He has published more than 150 scientific papers on these and other topics. He advises the UK government on both animal and human health, and his work during the UK 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic led to an Officer of the British Empire (OBE) award in 2002. Dr. Woolhouse is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.