systems. It identifies the attributes of effective decision support that have been identified in research in the decision sciences in studies of efforts to make scientific information useful to decision makers in agriculture, public health, environmental risk management, energy conservation programs, and other applications. The chapter also identifies and explains the key principles of effective decision support and identifies key barriers to achieving effective decision support and ways to overcome them.

Chapter 3 elaborates on one of the principles of decision support—that decision support systems should learn from experience, including from failures. It discusses four modes of learning and shows why an approach that we call deliberation with analysis, which integrates scientific information into a broadly participatory and iterative process of appraisal and reconsideration, is best suited to the kind of decision environment that is typical in responding to climate change.

Chapter 4 turns from issues of process to those of knowledge and information needs. It sketches the great variety of information needs of decision makers that arise from the great variety of climate responses and the many considerations that arise in choosing among them. The chapter outlines the contours of the research needed and also identifies needs for observational systems, indicators, and a stronger workforce for understanding and providing decision support.

Chapter 5 summarizes and integrates our main conclusions and recommendations.

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