Monitoring and predicting extreme situations
Training specialists in emergency prediction and response
Educating the public on actions to be taken in emergencies
Developing preventive measures to reduce the risks and lessen the consequences of emergencies
Improving the management of emergency prediction and response measures
Effectively accomplishing these objectives is impossible without utilizing new information and telecommunications technologies.3
The National Crisis Management Center (NCMC) has been created in Russia to unite the information resources and functional capabilities of local subsystems of the integrated state system with the aim of improving the quality and timeliness of management decisions on predicting and eliminating the consequences of emergencies. The NCMC is a geographically distributed information management complex with peripheral elements that make it possible to manage the forces, means, and resources of the integrated state system and civil defense entities during crises and emergencies.4
The rapid development of information technologies has led to the appearance of massive amounts of informational, communications, audio, and video data that must be recognized, structured, and analyzed in order to make competent management decisions. Meanwhile, although the rates of information technology development have increased, the amount of time allotted for making management decisions is being reduced, especially for decisions made in crisis situations.
The strategy for creating and developing national security support systems by states attests to the fact that information and management centers created at the national and regional levels and in major cities represent the universal foundation for the crisis management system. Informational support for such centers is provided by services such as 911, 112, and 01, as well as by scientific and academic centers.5
Intensive efforts are under way to apply modern concepts for the creation of crisis management centers involving high-technology equipment for communications and information exchange, depiction, and processing, which helps in efficiently preparing and making well-founded management decisions. Situation centers have been created in Moscow and regional centers in the various territorial agencies of EMERCOM. These centers are complexes of programmatic and technical resources housed in special facilities where emergency response officials may assemble if an emergency arises. The situation centers regularly conduct training exercises, some of which involve members of the commission on extreme situations.