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Seven main reasons underlie the emergence of new infections:

  1. Transfer of infections from one region of the world to another by migratory birds

  2. Human colonization of new territories inhabited by previously unknown animals or insects

  3. Industrial breeding of animals, particularly new animal species, or introduction of new species of pets

  4. Introduction of animals to new territories where they have not previously lived

  5. Global warming and the subsequent invasion of new animal and insect species

  6. Creation of new conditions for reproduction of animals and insects as a consequence of human activities

  7. Adoption of new technologies, which not only improves human life but also creates new conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms

Let us consider each of these issues individually.

TRANSFER OF INFECTIONS BY MIGRATORY BIRDS (EXAMPLE: H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUS)

The map in Figure 10-1 illustrates the epizootic caused by avian influenza virus in western Siberia in the summer of 2005. The first mass mortality event, initially affecting wild birds and subsequently domesticated species, was recorded by the Federal Agency for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance (Rosselkhoznadzor) in the village of Suzdalka, Dovolnoye Region, Novosibirsk Oblast (Shestopalov et al., 2006; Evseenko et al., 2006; and Lipatov et al., 2007). After the regional Rosselkhoznadzor office received the report from this village about the deaths of wild birds, it notified other regions of Novosibirsk Oblast and neighboring jurisdictions. Veterinarians began detecting disease in wild birds and later in domesticated birds at many sites in western Siberia and reported their findings to the local Rosselkhoznadzor offices. In particular, analogous epizootics were recorded in July-August 2005 in wild birds and subsequently in domesticated species in Altai Krai and Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Omsk, and Kurgan oblasts, as well as in Pavlodar Oblast in Kazakhstan (Lipatov et al., 2007).

Note that the threat to domesticated birds in individual and commercial farms was very serious, as these regions are known for mass poultry breeding on both private and industrial scales. Physical security is practically absent on individual farms but is sufficient on most commercial farms, which are equipped with ventilation tubes and doors as well as mesh-covered windows to prevent wild and domestic birds from mixing. In addition, at commercial farms grain is heat treated before feeding, and personnel and their clothing are disinfected at build-



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