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Russian Views on Countering Terrorism During Eight Years of Dialogue

Extracts from Proceedings of Four U.S.-Russian Workshops

Glenn Schweitzer and Merc Fox, Editors

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation

Policy and Global Affairs


In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences


Washington, D.C.

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Glenn Schweitzer and Merc Fox, Editors Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences In cooperation with RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-13757-7 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-13757-8 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eur- asia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Preface In June 1999, the presidents of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Russian Academy of Sciences agreed that a joint project on combating espe- cially dangerous crimes, particularly terrorism, would be of considerable interest to both Russian and American specialists in a variety of fields. The president of the NAS requested the president of the National Academy of Engineering to as- sume responsibility for developing and implementing the project. Representatives of the Institute of Medicine became involved in the project shortly thereafter. During the eight years that followed, several inter-academy planning meet- ings and four inter-academy workshops were held on various aspects of counter- ing terrorism. The workshops were carried out under the leadership of Siegfried Hecker of Stanford University and Yevgeny Velikhov of Kuzchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. Site visits to relevant Russian government offices and facilities involved in countering terrorism followed each of the workshops. The Carnegie Corporation of New York provided generous financial support for these activities. Proceedings of the workshops have been published as follows: High Impact Terrorism: Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop, June 2001, National Academy Press, 2002 

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i PREFACE Terrorism—Reducing Vulnerabilities and Improing Responses: U.S.- Russian Workshop Proceedings, March 2003, The National Academies Press, 2004 Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop, January 2005, The National Academies Press, 2006 Countering Terrorism—Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems: Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop, March 2007, The National Academies Press, 2009 This volume is a compilation of a number of the Russian papers included in the aforementioned proceedings. It should be of interest to U.S. specialists as well as to specialists from other countries who are working in the field of counter-terrorism, but who may not have ready access to the information that is presented. As demonstrated in the papers, Russia has been and should continue to be an important participant in global efforts to combat terrorism domestically and internationally. The papers are organized according to the workshops where they were pre- sented. The proceedings for each of the workshops contain additional Russian papers, all of the American papers, and reports of working groups, and can be found online at Glenn Schweitzer, Director Office for Central Europe and Eurasia

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Contents Papers from High Impact Terrorism: Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop (2002) Cooperation Among Ministries of Internal Affairs of CIS Member States in the Fight Against Terrorism and Other Manifestations of Extremism 3 Igor L. Dimitro Russian Legislation and the Struggle Against Terrorism 9 Mikhail P. Kiree Selected Technologies and Procedures Intended to Restrict Unauthorized Access to Explosives 19 Bronisla V. Matseeich Bioterrorism: A View from the Side 23 Oleg S. Morenko Electromagnetic Terrorism 31 Yury V. Parfyono ii

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iii CONTENTS Russian Legislation and the Fight Against Terrorism 35 Viktor E. Petrishche Could Terrorists Produce Low-Yield Nuclear Weapons? 47 Stanisla Rodiono Problems of Biological Security in Agriculture 51 Georgy A. Safono and Vladimir A. Garilo International Centers as a Basis for Controlling Infectious Disease and Countering Bioterrorism 61 Le S. Sandakhchie (Deceased), Sergey V. Neteso, and Raisa A. Martynyuk The Role of Internal Affairs Agencies in Efforts to Fight Terrorism Under High-Technology Conditions 71 Oleg A. Stepano Papers from Terrorism—Reducing Vulnerabilities and Improving Responses: U.S.-Russian Workshop Proceedings (2004) Analysis of the Threats and Consequences of Terrorist Acts in Urban Settings: Outline of a Protection System 81 Vladimir Z. Dorkin Lessons Learned from the Nord-Ost Terrorist Attack in Moscow from the Standpoint of Russian Security and Law Enforcement Agencies 93 Yegeny A. Kolesniko Technical Protection of Electronic Documents in Computer Systems 103 Valery A. Konyasky International Aspects of Creating a State System for Countering the Illegal Circulation of Radioactive Materials in the Russian Federation 115 Vladimir M. Kutsenko Computer Security Training for Professional Specialists and Other Personnel Associated with Preventing and Responding to Computer Attacks 119 Anatoly A. Malyuk, Nikolai S. Pogozhin, and Aleksey I. Tolstoy Medical Aspects of Combating Acts of Bioterrorism 129 Gennady G. Onishchenko

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ix CONTENTS Certain Aspects Regarding the Development of Conditions Favorable to Cyberterrorism and the Main Areas of Cooperation in the Struggle Against It 133 Igor A. Sokolo and Vladimir I. Budzko The Role of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs in Combating Terrorism in Urban Conditions 141 Sergey A. Starostin The Role of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations and Executive Branch Agencies of the City of Moscow in Dealing with Emergency Situations Arising from Acts of Terrorism 153 Aleksandr M. Yelisee Papers from Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop (2006) Unauthorized Use of Radiation Sources: Measures to Prevent Attacks and Mitigate Consequences 161 Leonid Bolsho, Rafael Arutyunyan, Elena Melikhoa, and Oleg Palosky Special Characteristics of Firefighting in Urban Areas 179 Nikolay P. Kopylo On the Events in Beslan 199 Gennady Koalenko Terrorist Acts in Moscow: Experience and Lessons in Eliminating Their Consequences 215 Aleksandr Yu. Kudrin Methodology for Assessing the Risks of Terrorism 221 Nikolay A. Makhuto Cybercrime and the Training of Specialists to Combat It in Russia 237 Nikolay V. Medede On Efforts to Counter International Terrorism in the Russian Federation and Possible Areas of U.S.-Russian Cooperation in this Area 247 Valentin A. Sobole

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x CONTENTS Efforts of Russian Ministries in Implementing Measures to Prevent Acts of Terrorism 257 Sergey G. Vasin Papers from Countering Terrorism—Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems: Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop (2009) Electromagnetic Terrorism: Threat to the Security of the State Infrastructure 271 Vladimir Ye. Forto and Yury V. Parfyono Use of Predictive Modeling Packages for Effective Emergency Management 275 Nikolai P. Kopylo and Irek R. Khasano Organizational Measures and Decision Support Systems for Preventing and Responding to Terrorist Acts at Potentially Hazardous Facilities, on Transportation Systems, and in Locations Where Large Numbers of People Congregate 289 A. Yu. Kudrin, A. I. Zaporozhets, and S. A. Kachano International and National Priorities in Combating Terrorism in the Transportation Sector 297 Vladimir N. Lopatin Characteristics of Technological Terrorism Scenarios and Impact Factors 305 Nikolai A. Makhuto, Vitaly P. Petro, and Dmitry O. Rezniko Emerging Viral Infections in the Asian Part of Russia 323 Sergei V. Neteso and Natalya A. Markoich Activities of the Russian Federal Medical-Biological Agency Related to Radiation, Chemical, and Biological Security 339 Vladimir V. Romano The Problem of Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline Supply 343 Sergei G. Serebryako