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References 27 Eisenman, I. 2008. The results for cloud amount and retreat of the ice cover were downloaded from the individual models cited in IPCC-4 (2007). Personal communication. Fetterer, F., S. Wilds, and J. Sloan. 2008. Arctic sea ice melt pond statistics and maps, 1999-2001. Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available online at, accessed May 13, 2009. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2008. New Rule Unifies Domestic and International Conservation Laws to Manage Polar Bear. News Release, December 11, 2008. Available online at cfm?newsId=27A58FDE-922A-2B50-ED394D030EE543BD, accessed 23 March 2009. Hibler III, W. D. 2003. Modeling the dynamic response of sea ice. Pp. 227-336 in Mass Balance of the Cryosphere: Observations and Modeling of Contemporary and Future Changes, J. L. Bamber and A. J. Payne, eds. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press. INSDROP (International Northern Sea Route Programme). 1998. Summary and Statistics of All INSROP Products and Activities. Lysaker, Norway: The Fridtjof Nansen Institute. 140 pp. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. 104 pp. Available online at syr.htm, accessed May 13, 2009. Kay J. E., T. L’Ecuyer, A. Gettelman, G. Stephens, and C. O’Dell. 2008. The contribution of cloud and radiation anomalies to the 2007 Arctic sea ice extent minimum, Geophysical Research Letters 35:L08503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033451. Kwok, R., G. F.Cunningham, and W. D.Hibler. 2003. Sub-daily sea ice motion and deformation from Radarsat observations. Geophysical Research Letters 30(23), doi: 10.1029/2003GL018723. Kwok R., G. F. Cunningham, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi. 2007. Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) over Arctic sea ice: Retrieval of freeboard. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:C12013, doi: 10.1029/2006JC003978. Kwok, R., E. C. Hunke, W. Maslowski, D. Menemenlis, and J. Zhang. 2008. Variability of sea ice simulations assessed with RGPS kinematics. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:C11012, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004783. Kwok, R. and J.F.Cunningham. 2008. ICESat over arctic sea ice: Estimation of snow depth and ice thickness. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:C08010, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004753.

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28 Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products Lindsay, R. W. 1998. Temporal variability of the energy balance of thick Arctic pack ice. Journal of Climate 11:313-331. Maslanik, J. A., C. Fowler, J. Stroeve, S. Drobot, J. Zwally, D. Yi, and W. Emery. 2007. A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L24501, doi: 24510.21029/22007GL032043. Maslanik, J. A., M. Sturm, M. B. Rivas, A. J. Gasiewski, J. F. Heinrichs, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Holmgren, M. Klein, T. Markus, D. K. Perovich, J. G. Sonntag, J. C. Stroeve, and K. Tape. 2006. Spatial variability of Barrow-area shore-fast sea ice and its relationships to passive microwave emissivity. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience & Remote Sensing 44(11):3021-3031, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2006.879557. Meier, W. N., J. Stroeve, and F. Fetterer. 2007. Whither Arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally, and extending beyond the satellite record. Annals of Glaciology 46:428-434 Mueter, F.J. and M.A Lutzow. 2008. Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf. Ecological Applications 18(3):309-320. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2000. SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery, Version 1.0. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Available online at, accessed May 14, 2009. Norton, D. W. 2001. Fifty More Years Below Zero: Tributes and Meditations for the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory’s first Half Century at Barrow, Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press. Richelson, J. T. 1998. Scientists in black. Scientific American 278(2):48-55. Rothrock, D., D. B. Percival, and M. Wensnahan. 2008. The decline in arctic sea-ice thickness: separating the spatial, annual, and interannual variability in a quarter century of submarine data. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:C05003, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004252. Serreze, M. C., M. M. Holland, and J. Stroeve. 2007. Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science 315:1533-1536. Steele, M. 1992. Sea ice melting and floe geometry in a simple ice-ocean model. Journal of Geophysical Research 97:17729-17738. Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier and T. Scambos. 2008. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007. Eos Transactions AGU 89(2):13, doi: 10.1029/2008EO020001. Tschudi, M. A., J. A. Maslanik and D. K. Perovich. 2008. Derivation of melt pond coverage of Arctic sea ice using MODIS observations. Remote Sensing of the Environment 112:2605-2614, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.12.609.

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References 29 USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2007. Future Retreat of Arctic Sea Ice Will Lower Polar Bear Populations and Limit Their Distribution. News Release, September 7, 2007. Available online at /article.asp?ID=1773, accessed 23 March 2009. Wadhams, P. 2005. Convective chimneys in the Greenland Sea: A review of recent observations. Pp.1 -27 in Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, vol. 42. New York, NY: CRC Press. Zhang, J., M. Steele, R. Lindsay, A. Schweiger, and J. Morison. 2008. Ensemble 1-Year predictions of Arctic sea ice for the spring and summer of 2008. Geophysical Research Letters 35:1-5.

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