specified distance from building entrances (Halperin and Rigotti, 2003). By January 2009, 260 colleges and universities had enacted 100% smoke-free–campus policies with no exemptions (ANRF, 2009d). Moreover, 68% of the public universities do not sell tobacco products, and about half have written policies banning tobacco advertising on campus (Halperin and Rigotti, 2003). Smoking prevalence is lower among students living in smoke-free college housing than in housing without such bans (Wechsler et al., 2001). Furthermore, nonsmoking students living in smoke-free college housing are less likely to initiate smoking (Wechsler et al., 2001).

DoD is in the unique position of already requiring that new recruits into all the services be tobacco-free during basic training; the Air Force also mandates that trainees be tobacco-free during some technical training.

All military services require that recruits not use tobacco during basic military training. The military service academies do not require that students be tobacco-free.

Private Residences and Vehicles

There has been a marked increase in personal smoking bans in the home over the last few decades. Smoking bans in the home are associated with lower exposure of adult and child residents to secondhand smoke (Biener et al., 1997; Brownson et al., 1995; Martinez-Donate et al., 2003, 2007; Spencer et al., 2005; Wakefield et al., 2000a), and they encourage smoking cessation (Farkas et al., 2000; Longo et al., 2001; Siahpush et al., 2003; Wakefield et al., 2000b), reduce smoking levels, and increase the average time to the first cigarette of the day among continuing smokers (Borland et al., 2006; Pizacani et al., 2004). Home smoking bans are also effective in reducing smoking initiation, promoting cessation, and lowering cigarette consumption by adolescents and young adults (Borland et al., 2006; Clark et al., 2006a; Farkas et al., 2000; Hill et al., 2005; Lotrean et al., 2005; NIH, 2006; Thomson et al., 2005; Wakefield et al., 2000b). The potential effect of home smoking bans on smoking prevalence has been estimated to surpass that of smoke-free workplaces (Bonta, 2007). Some municipalities have taken steps toward promoting smoke-free housing (Older Americans Report, 2005; Smokefree Apartment House Registry, 2007). As noted above, the concept of smoke-free housing has already been implemented by the hospitality industry. Over 8,300 lodgings in the United States were



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