smoke-free in 2008, and 23 states and over 500 municipalities had laws specifying the minimum percentage of smoke-free rooms in hotels and motels (ANRF, 2009e; Stoller, 2008).

There is evidence that the increasing prevalence of smoking restrictions in public places has translated into smokers and nonsmokers adopting smoking bans in their cars. A 2002–2003 survey indicated that 57.1% of US smokers do not smoke in their cars when nonsmokers are present (Borland et al., 2006). Several states and jurisdictions have adopted legislation to ban or limit smoking in private vehicles while children are present (American Lung Association, 2009; IOM, 2007; OTRU, 2006). In California, 85% of daily smokers support a ban on smoking in cars when children are present (Al-Delaimy et al., 2008). In a review of public attitudes toward laws for smoke-free private vehicles when children are present, more than 77% of smokers in California, New Zealand, and Australia supported such laws (Thomson and Wilson, 2009).

DoD has no requirement for designated smoke-free housing for military personnel and their families.

Outdoor Spaces

An increasing number of outdoor venues (such as parks and beaches) are becoming smoke-free, especially in states with strong tobacco-control efforts, such as California. By January 2009, Hawaii and Iowa prohibited smoking in outdoor dining areas, and 149 municipalities had enacted laws for 100% smoke-free outdoor dining areas (ANRF, 2009f). Moreover, 76 municipalities and Puerto Rico had smoke-free–beach laws (ANRF, 2009g), and a total of 399 municipalities required all city parks or specifically named city parks to be smoke-free (ANRF, 2009h). Aside from potential protective effects for nonsmokers, smoking bans in outdoor spaces contribute to the denormalization of tobacco use, reduce smoking rates, and prevent future initiation of smoking by children and adolescents. More important, there is evidence of strong public support in California for smoking bans in such outdoor public spaces as children’s playgrounds, parks, beaches, golf courses, and sports stadiums (Gilpin et al., 2004).

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