tobacco-related counteradvertising messages directed toward the military. The authors conducted focus groups to determine which counteradvertising messages might be most effective in discouraging tobacco use by junior enlisted members of the Air Force and Army. Four messages appealed to most of the members:

  1. It is difficult to be a positive role model if you smoke.

  2. Smoking increases your likelihood of early discharge from the military.

  3. Smoking lowers your readiness to fight.

  4. Smoking lowers your productivity.

Messages about tobacco-industry manipulation of tobacco users or about the adverse health effects of tobacco were not effective antitobacco messages for this audience (Hoffman et al., 2008).

The 1999 strategic plan includes public education in Goal B.3, “Promote the benefits of being a nonsmoker and provide tobacco counteradvertising using Public Affairs and other military media.” DoD has initiated a major military counteradvertising campaign aimed at that goal. The “Quit Tobacco. Make Everyone Proud” tobacco-cessation program targets 18- to 24-year-old male service members in pay grades E-1 to E-4, and it also includes program components that may be used by all service members and their families. The program, available at, is multifaceted and has sections that are designed for members of each of the armed services. It includes screens that take users through “4 Steps to Quitting.” Additional features allow users to access a message board to ask questions, share opinions, and get support anonymously; to develop their own plan for quitting; to post stories to “Tobacco Tales”; to learn about tobacco-cessation medications and how to obtain them; to listen to podcasts; to participate in a live chat link; to identify tobacco-cessation programs at military installations and other program or information sources; to play games for distraction if they have an urge to smoke; and to take quizzes to assess their knowledge about tobacco use and the benefits of quitting. The site also has live access 7 days/week to trained tobacco-cessation counselors for instant-message advice that is private and anonymous. The page called “Help Someone Quit” is also useful for health-care providers and friends and family of tobacco users and provides materials to motivate and assist tobacco users to quit. From the site, health-care providers can order educational materials that have been tailored to each service. The committee finds that the DoD “Quit Tobacco. Make Everyone Proud” campaign has innovative features that may be particularly effective in reaching target audiences, such as appealing to young male military

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