5100.13E (June 2008) specifies that on surface ships, smoking is permitted on weather decks and in some unmanned indoor spaces if there is direct ventilation to the outside; the instruction also identifies numerous areas that may not be used as smoking areas. Smoking is permitted aboard submarines in well-ventilated areas away from stationary watch stations; several areas are not to be used as smoking areas. There is a restriction on the number of people that can use the smoking areas on submarines on the basis of ventilation capacity. Jackman et al. (2004) found that exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke on submarines was minimal during a 10-day deployment (Jackman et al., 2004). Seufert and Kiser (1996), however, found that after 62 hours in a nonventilated submerged submarine the end-expiratory carbon monoxide (EECO) levels of nonsmoking crew members were equal to the initial EECO levels of crew members who smoked, suggesting that nonsmokers were exposed to elevated levels of carbon monoxide. The committee notes that smoking on submarines poses other risks, as demonstrated by a fire on a Russian submarine that might have been caused by unauthorized smoking. The Navy prohibits the use of smokeless tobacco during briefings, classes, formations, and inspections and while on watch. Tobacco spit must be held in containers with sealed lids and disposed of in a sanitary manner that prevents public exposure (Navy Instruction 5100.13E, June 2008).

Each Marine Corps base has a separate base order that serves as its tobacco-prevention and -control policy. For example, Camp Pendleton has Base Order 6200.2C, Tobacco Use Prevention Program, dated November 1993; Quantico has Marine Corps Base Order 5313.1C, Smoke-Free Workplace, dated October 2002; and Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni in Japan has Marine Corps Air Station Order 5100.24, Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, dated November 2000.

The committee found a paucity of information on the attitude of military personnel toward tobacco-use restrictions in the workplace and other community settings. Hurtado et al. (1995) found that a slight majority of 2,221 crewmembers onboard an aircraft carrier, 36% of who were smokers, favored a newly implemented smoke-free policy, including 18% of the current smokers. However, 32% of the current smokers indicated that they planned to request a transfer off the ship as a result of the no-smoking policy (Hurtado et al., 1995). The committee notes that the no-smoking policy was voluntarily implemented by the commanding officer in response to the designation of secondhand smoke as a human carcinogen.

Finding: There are inconsistencies between the armed services with regard to the use of tobacco on military



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