and legal frameworks, building and managing partnerships, fostering an enabling environment for civil society, and implementing action plans. The two major parts of the book describe risk factors associated with tobacco use, tobacco-industry strategies, the scientific basis of interventions, and the FCTC. Interventions that reduce demand (including price and other measures) and that reduce supply are also described. Most of the handbook describes the process of developing a national plan of action, including establishing of effective infrastructure; training and education; communication and public awareness; working with the media; programming selective activities; legislative, regulatory, and economic measures; countering the tobacco industry; effective partnerships; monitoring, surveillance, evaluation, and reporting; and research and exchange of information (WHO, 2004).
CDC’s Guide to Community Preventive Services is a series of systematic reviews and evidence-based recommendations developed by the nonfederal Task Force on Community Preventive Services; members are appointed by the director of CDC to provide information relative to “effectiveness, economic efficiency, and feasibility of interventions to promote community health and prevent disease” (CDC, 2009). The task force reviewed evidence to provide recommendations about public-health interventions, including tobacco control. The summary of findings on tobacco-use prevention and control (CDC, 2002) provides recommendations for interventions of three kinds: (1) strategies to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; (2) strategies to reduce tobacco-use initiation by children, adolescents, and young adults; and (3) strategies to increase tobacco cessation. Strong evidence was found to support the use of smoking bans and restrictions to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke. Recommended strategies to reduce tobacco-use initiation include tobacco-free policies, increases in the unit prices of tobacco products, and mass-media campaigns combined with other interventions. Those strategies are also recommended to increase tobacco cessation in addition to a number of interventions appropriate for healthcare systems, including provider-reminder systems and provider-education programs. Reducing patients’ out-of-pocket costs for effective treatments for tobacco use and dependence and patient telephone support are also recommended (CDC, 2002).
The SmokeLess States Program was developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to provide support to statewide efforts to reduce tobacco use. The program was initiated in 1993 and provided grants to statewide coalitions through 2004. It was intended to complement government programs (such as ASSIST) by awarding grants to nongovernment organizations with the goal of educating the pubic and policy makers. The grants initially supported comprehensive tobacco-